Adding aldosterone receptor blockade to standard renoprotective treatment may provide additional renoprotection in patients with overt nephropathy. We expected an impact of spironolactone in early diabetic nephropathy, and for this hypothesis we studied the effect on markers of glomerular and tubular damage in patients with Type 1 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study in 21 patients with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria using spironolactone 25 mg or placebo once daily, for 60 days added to standard antihypertensive treatment. After each treatment period, the primary endpoint were evaluated: urinary(u)-albumin excretion/24 hour(h) and secondary endpoints; 24 h blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and markers of tubular damage: urinary liver-type fatty-acid binding protein (LFABP), neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM1).
All patients completed the study. During spironolactone treatment, urinary albumin excretion rate was reduced by 60% (range 21-80%), from 90 mg/24 h to 35 mg/24 h (P=0.01). Blood pressure (24 h) did not change during spironolactone treatment (P>0.2 for all comparisons). The GFR (SD) decreased from 78 (6) mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 72 (6) mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P=0.003). Urinary liver-type fatty-acid binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule 1 did not change during treatment (P>0.3 for all comparisons). Treatment was well-tolerated, but two patients had severe hyperkalaemia (plasma potassium = 5.7 mmol/l), which was sufficiently treated with diuretics and dietary intervention.
Spironolactone treatment in addition to standard renoprotective treatment lowers urinary albumin excretion in microalbuminuric patients with Type 1 diabetes, and thus may offer additional renoprotection independent of blood pressure.
"In patients with heart failure  or resistant hypertension  aldosterone antagonists were associated with initial decreases in eGFR and did not alter the decline in renal glomerular function in the long-term. On the other side, there is evidence, that aldosterone antagonists exert renoprotective effects through reduction of albuminuria or proteinuria [26,34,35]. The addition of aldosterone antagonists vs. placebo to ACE inhibitor treatment was associated with a decrease of albuminuria or proteinuria in six double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials [36-41], reviewed in 2010 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that aldosterone promotes renal damage. Since data on the association between aldosterone and renal function in the general population are sparse, we chose to address this issue. We investigated the associations between the plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) or the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a sample of adult men and women from Northeast Germany.
A study population of 1921 adult men and women who participated in the first follow-up of the Study of Health in Pomerania was selected. None of the subjects used drugs that alter PAC or ARR. The eGFR was calculated according to the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2.
Linear regression models, adjusted for sex, age, waist circumference, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, serum triglyceride concentrations and time of blood sampling revealed inverse associations of PAC or ARR with eGFR (Ss-coefficient for log-transformed PAC -3.12, p < 0.001; Ss-coefficient for log-transformed ARR -3.36, p < 0.001). Logistic regression models revealed increased odds for CKD with increasing PAC (odds ratio for a one standard deviation increase in PAC: 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.71). There was no statistically significant association between ARR and CKD.
Our study demonstrates that PAC and ARR are inversely associated with the glomerular filtration rate in the general population.
"The effect could arise from either a defective renal filtration barrier as observed by long-term elevated aldosterone and albumin hyperfiltration (Sangalli et al. 2011; Nielsen et al. 2012) or nongenomic effects of aldosterone possibly mediated by the proposed membrane-bound estrogen and aldosterone receptor GPER1/GPR30 (Gros et al. 2011). The hyperfiltration hypothesis is not supported by elevations in intracellular albumin contents or urinary albumin levels in our experiments. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal tubules are highly active transporting epithelia and are at risk of protein aggregation due to high protein turnover and/or oxidative stress. We hypothesized that the risk of aggregation was increased upon hormone stimulation and assessed the state of the intracellular protein degradation systems in the kidney from control rats and rats receiving aldosterone or angiotensin II treatment for 7 days. Control rats formed both aggresomes and autophagosomes specifically in the proximal tubules, indicating a need for these structures even under baseline conditions. Fluorescence sorted aggresomes contained various rat keratins known to be expressed in renal tubules as assessed by protein mass spectrometry. Aldosterone administration increased the abundance of the proximal tubular aggresomal protein keratin 5, the ribosomal protein RPL27, ataxin-3, and the chaperone heat shock protein 70-4 with no apparent change in the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Angiotensin II induced aggregation of RPL27 specifically in proximal tubules, again without apparent change in antiaggregating proteins or the aggresome-autophagosome markers. Albumin endocytosis was unaffected by the hormone administration. Taken together, we find that the renal proximal tubules display aggresome formation and autophagy. Despite an increase in aggregation-prone protein load in these tubules during hormone treatment, renal proximal tubules seem to have sufficient capacity for removing protein aggregates from the cells.
"Since the publication of a preliminary study by Chrysostomou et al.5, several subsequent clinical studies have shown that aldosterone blockade with spironolactone or eplerenine decreases albuminuria/proteinuria6. In a recent placebo‐controlled cross‐sectional study of 21 type 1 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria from Denmark, spironolactone in addition to standard renoprotective treatment was shown to reduce microalbuminuria9. Thiazide diuretics have also been found to reduce proteinuria in patients with CKD including DKD10. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the efficacy of spironolactone and trichlormethiazide, as add-on therapy to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, for reduction of albuminuria in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), we conducted this randomized, open-labeled, parallel-group, active-controlled, per-protocol-design study. Type 2 diabetic patients receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, with persistent albuminuria (≥100 mg/g creatinine) were randomly assigned to either spironolactone (25 mg/day) or trichlormethiazide (2 mg/day). The primary outcome was the change in albuminuria at 24 weeks of treatment. In patients who completed 24 weeks of treatment with spironolactone (n = 18) and trichlormethiazide (n = 15), albuminuria decreased significantly by -57.6 ± 21.3% (SD) (P < 0.001) and -48.4 ± 27.1% (P < 0.001), respectively. There was no significant difference in the change in albuminuria between groups (P = 0.270). This pilot study suggests add-on therapy with spironolactone or trichlormethiazide to RAS blockade may be comparably beneficial to reducing albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. This trial was registered with UMIN-CTR (no. UMIN000008914).
Guoyu Jia, Fusheng Di, Qipeng Wang, Jinshuang Shao, Lei Gao, Lu Wang, Qiang Li, Nali Li,
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