IL-22 mediates host defense against an intestinal intracellular parasite in the absence of IFN-γ at the cost of Th17-driven immunopathology.
ABSTRACT The roles of Th1 and Th17 responses as mediators of host protection and pathology in the intestine are the subjects of intense research. In this study, we investigated a model of intestinal inflammation driven by the intracellular apicomplexan parasite Eimeria falciformis. Although IFN-γ was the predominant cytokine during E. falciformis infection in wild-type mice, it was found to be dispensable for host defense and the development of intestinal inflammation. E. falciformis-infected IFN-γR(-/-) and IFN-γ(-/-) mice developed dramatically exacerbated body weight loss and intestinal pathology, but they surprisingly harbored fewer parasites. This was associated with a striking increase in parasite-specific IL-17A and IL-22 production in the mesenteric lymph nodes and intestine. CD4(+) T cells were found to be the source of IL-17A and IL-22, which drove the recruitment of neutrophils and increased tissue expression of anti-microbial peptides (RegIIIβ, RegIIIγ) and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Concurrent neutralization of IL-17A and IL-22 in E. falciformis-infected IFN-γR(-/-) mice resulted in a reduction in infection-induced body weight loss and inflammation and significantly increased parasite shedding. In contrast, neutralization of IL-22 alone was sufficient to increase parasite burden, but it had no effect on body weight loss. Treatment of an E. falciformis-infected intestinal epithelial cell line with IFN-γ, IL-17A, or IL-22 significantly reduced parasite development in vitro. Taken together, to our knowledge these data demonstrate for the first time an antiparasite effect of IL-22 during an intestinal infection, and they suggest that IL-17A and IL-22 have redundant roles in driving intestinal pathology in the absence of IFN-γ signaling.
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-22 has redundant, protective or pathogenic functions during auto-immune, inflammatory and infectious diseases. Here, we addressed the potential role of IL-22 in host defence and pathogenesis during lethal and sublethal respiratory H3N2 influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We show that IL-22, as well as factors associated with its production, are expressed in the lung tissue during the early phases of IAV infection. Our data indicate that RORγt-positive αβ and γδ T cells, as well as innate lymphoid cells, expressed enhanced Il22 transcripts as early as two days post-infection. During lethal or sublethal IAV infections, endogenous IL-22 played no role in the control of IAV replication and in the development of the IAV-specific CD8(+) T cell response. During lethal infection, where wild-type (WT) mice succumbed to severe pneumonia, the lack of IL-22 did not accelerate or delay IAV-associated pathogenesis and animal death. In stark contrast, during sublethal IAV infection, IL-22 deficient animals had an enhanced lung injury and showed a lower airway epithelial integrity relative to WT littermates. Of importance, the protective effect of endogenous IL-22 in pulmonary damages was associated with a more controlled secondary bacterial infection. Indeed, after challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae, IAV-experienced Il22(-/-) animals were more susceptible than WT controls in terms of survival rate and bacterial burden in the lungs. Together, IL-22 plays no major role during lethal influenza but is beneficial during sublethal H3N2 IAV infection where it limits lung inflammation and subsequent bacterial superinfections.Journal of Virology 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The phylum Apicomplexa comprises important unicellular human parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Eimeria is the largest and most diverse genus of apicomplexan parasites and some species of the genus are the causative agent of coccidiosis, a disease economically devastating in poultry. We report a complete genome sequence of the mouse parasite Eimeria falciformis. We assembled and annotated the genome sequence to study host-parasite interactions in this understudied genus in a model organism host.BMC genomics. 08/2014; 15(1):696.
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ABSTRACT: Histomorphology remains a powerful routine evaluating intestinal inflammation in animal models. Emphasizing the focus of a given animal study, histopathology can overstate differences between established models. We aimed to systematize histopathological evaluation of intestinal inflammation in mouse models facilitating interstudy comparisons. Samples of all parts of the intestinal tract from well-established mouse models of intestinal inflammation were evaluated from hematoxylin/eosin-stained sections and specific observations confirmed by subsequent immunohistochemistry. Three main categories sufficiently reflected the severity of histopathology independent of the localization and the overall extent of an inflammation: (i) quality and dimension of inflammatory cell infiltrates, (ii) epithelial changes and (iii) overall mucosal architecture. Scoring schemata were defined along specified criteria for each of the three categories. The direction of the initial hit proved crucial for the comparability of histological changes. Chemical noxes, infection with intestinal parasites or other models where the barrier was disturbed from outside, the luminal side, showed high levels of similarity and distinct differences to changes in the intestinal balance resulting from inside events like altered cytokine responses or disruption of the immune cell homeostasis. With a high degree of generalisation and maximum scores from 4-8 suitable scoring schemata accounted specific histopathological hallmarks. Truly integrating demands and experiences of gastroenterologists, mouse researchers, microbiologists and pathologists we provide an easy-to-use guideline evaluating histomorphology in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Standard criteria and definitions facilitate classification and rating of new relevant models, allow comparison in animal studies and transfer of functional findings to comparable histopathologies in human disease.International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 08/2014; 7(8):4557-4576. · 2.24 Impact Factor