Article

Drosophila Epsin's role in Notch ligand cells requires three Epsin protein functions: The lipid binding function of the ENTH domain, a single Ubiquitin interaction motif, and a subset of the C-terminal protein binding modules

Section of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
Developmental Biology (Impact Factor: 3.64). 03/2012; 363(2):399-412. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.01.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epsin is an endocytic protein that binds Clathrin, the plasma membrane, Ubiquitin, and also a variety of other endocytic proteins through well-characterized motifs. Although Epsin is a general endocytic factor, genetic analysis in Drosophila and mice revealed that Epsin is essential specifically for internalization of ubiquitinated transmembrane ligands of the Notch receptor, a process required for Notch activation. Epsin's mechanism of function is complex and context-dependent. Consequently, how Epsin promotes ligand endocytosis and thus Notch signaling is unclear, as is why Notch signaling is uniquely dependent on Epsin. Here, by generating Drosophila lines containing transgenes that express a variety of different Epsin deletion and substitution variants, we tested each of the five protein or lipid interaction modules for a role in Notch activation by each of the two ligands, Serrate and Delta. There are five main results of this work that impact present thinking about the role of Epsin in ligand cells. First, we discovered that deletion or mutation of both UIMs destroyed Epsin's function in Notch signaling and had a greater negative impact on Epsin activity than removal of any other module type. Second, only one of Epsin's two UIMs was essential. Third, the lipid-binding function of the ENTH domain was required only for maximal Epsin activity. Fourth, although the C-terminal Epsin modules that interact with Clathrin, the adapter protein complex AP-2, or endocytic accessory proteins were necessary collectively for Epsin activity, their functions were highly redundant; most unexpected was the finding that Epsin's Clathrin binding motifs were dispensable. Finally, we found that signaling from either ligand, Serrate or Delta, required the same Epsin modules. All of these observations are consistent with a model where Epsin's essential function in ligand cells is to link ubiquitinated Notch ligands to Clathrin-coated vesicles through other Clathrin adapter proteins. We propose that Epsin's specificity for Notch signaling simply reflects its unique ability to interact with the plasma membrane, Ubiquitin, and proteins that bind Clathrin.

0 Followers
 · 
244 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled canonical Wnt signalling supports colon epithelial tumour expansion and malignant transformation. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms involved is crucial for elucidating the pathogenesis of and will provide new therapeutic targets for colon cancer. Epsins are ubiquitin-binding adaptor proteins upregulated in several human cancers; however, the involvement of epsins in colon cancer is unknown. Here we show that loss of intestinal epithelial epsins protects against colon cancer by significantly reducing the stability of the crucial Wnt signalling effector, dishevelled ( Dvl2), and impairing Wnt signalling. Consistently, epsins and Dvl2 are correspondingly upregulated in colon cancer. Mechanistically, epsin binds Dvl2 via its epsin N-terminal homology domain and ubiquitin-interacting motifs and prohibits Dvl2 polyubiquitination and degradation. Our findings reveal an unconventional role for epsins in stabilizing Dvl2 and potentiating Wnt signalling in colon cancer cells to ensure robust colon cancer progression. The pro-carcinogenic role of Epsins suggests that they are potential therapeutic targets to combat colon cancer.
    Nature Communications 03/2015; 6. DOI:10.1038/ncomms7380 · 10.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tel2, a protein conserved from yeast to vertebrates, is an essential regulator of diverse cellular processes including telomere maintenance, DNA damage checkpoints, DNA repair, biological clocks, and cell signaling. The Drosophila Tel2 protein is produced as a translational fusion with EpsinR, a Clathrin adapter that facilitates vesicle trafficking between the Golgi and endosomes. EpsinR and Tel2 are encoded by a Drosophila gene called lqfR. lqfR is required for viability, and its specific roles include cell growth, proliferation, and planar cell polarity. We find that all of these functions of lqfR are attributed entirely to Tel2, not EpsinR. In addition, we find that Drosophila LqfR/Tel2 is a component of one or more protein complexes that contain E-cadherin and Armadillo. Moreover, Tel2 modulates E-cadherin and Armadillo cellular dynamics. We propose that at least one of the functions of Drosophila Tel2 is regulation of Wingless signaling.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e46357. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0046357 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The very conserved Notch pathway is used iteratively during development and adulthood to regulate cell fates. Notch activation relies on interactions between neighboring cells, through the binding of Notch receptors to their ligands, both transmembrane molecules. This inter-cellular contact initiates a cascade of events eventually transforming the cell surface receptor into a nuclear factor acting on the transcription of specific target genes. This review highlights how the various processes undergone by Notch receptors and ligands that regulate the pathway are linked to ubiquitination events.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 03/2013; 14(3):6359-81. DOI:10.3390/ijms14036359 · 2.34 Impact Factor