Vigabatrin for Childhood Partial-Onset Epilepsies

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.
Pediatric Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.7). 02/2012; 46(2):83-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2011.11.020
Source: PubMed


To determine vigabatrin's effectiveness and the prevalence of symptomatic visual impairment (i.e., impairment affecting the ability to perform everyday activities) associated with its therapy in pediatric epilepsy, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of 156 patients receiving vigabatrin at Cincinnati Children's Medical Center from 1998-2010. In addition to demographics and vigabatrin dosing information, data included seizure type/frequency at presentation and subsequent follow-up. Of 156 patients, we excluded 35 because their medical records were insufficient to permit verification of the exact duration or timing of vigabatrin treatment. To evaluate efficacy (n = 121/135), we used a 5-point scale (0-4) to compare seizure frequency at several time points. To evaluate visual impairment (n = 63), we reviewed serial ophthalmologic evaluations at baseline and during treatment for patients in whom they were clinically indicated. Mean age at treatment initiation was 1.8 years (range, 0.1-29.2 years). Treatment duration ranged from 0.7-101.0 months, with an estimated average daily dose of 79 mg/kg/day. Tuberous sclerosis complex was the commonest seizure etiology (83%). Partial-onset seizure, alone or with infantile spasms, was the commonest seizure type (84%). Seizure frequency decreased from 3.7 ± 0.6 S.D. at baseline to 1.8 ± 1.7 S.D. at 6 months (P < 0.001). Responses to vigabatrin did not differ by tuberous sclerosis complex or nontuberous sclerosis complex etiology, and were sustained for 5 years. Sixty-three patients (∼50% of all patients evaluated) underwent clinically indicated ophthalmologic assessments during the review period. In our clinical judgment, no cases of clinically relevant vigabatrin-associated visual impairment occurred. Vigabatrin was effective for refractory childhood partial-onset epilepsy, and was not associated with symptomatic vision loss.

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Available from: Darcy A Krueger, Jan 22, 2015
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    • "Vigabatrin has been used as a first-line treatment of children with infantile spasms aged between one month and 2 years and as an add-on therapy for adolescents with intractable complex partial epilepsy in over 50 countries[11, 12]. Long-term Vigabatrin therapy is considered to be safe and well tolerated; the most common side effects are a self-limiting headache, somnolence, weight gain and visual field defects[13, 14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Approximately one-third of all children with epilepsy do not achieve complete seizure improvement. This study evaluated the efficacy of Vigabatrin in children with intractable epilepsy. Methods: From November 2011 to October 2012, 73 children with refractory epilepsy (failure of seizure control with the use of two or more anticonvulsant drugs) who were referred to the Children's Medical Center and Mofid Children's Hospital were included in the study. The patients were treated with Vigabatrin in addition to their previous medication, and followed-up after three to four weeks to determine the daily frequency, severity, and duration of seizures in addition to any reported side effects. Findings: Of the 67 children, 41 (61.2%) were males and 26 (38.8%) females, their age ranging from three months to 13 years with an average of 3.1 [standard deviation (SD), 2.6] years. The mean daily frequency of seizures at baseline was 6.61 (SD, 5.9) seizures per day. Vigabatrin reduced the seizure frequency ≤2.9 (SD, 5.2) (56% decline) and 3.0 (SD, 5.3) (54.5% decline) per day after three and six months of treatment, respectively. A significant difference was observed between seizure frequencies at three (P<0.001) and six months (P<0.001) after Vigabatrin initiation compared with the baseline. Somnolence [3 (4.5%)], horse laugh [1 (1.5%)], urinary stones [1 (1.5%)], increased appetite [1 (1.5%)], and abnormal electroretinographic pattern [3 (4.5%)] were the most common side effects in our patients. Conclusion: This study confirms the short-term efficacy and safety of Vigabatrin in children with refractory epilepsies.
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    • "Otherwise, annual evaluation is recommended. For patients on vigabatrin, ophthalmologic evaluation every 3 months is recommended by the United States Food and Drug Administration, although utility of such frequent assessment is questioned, especially in the young and those with developmental disability that limit the extent of ophthalmologic evaluation that can be performed.30,58 Thus, even in these populations, annual ophthalmologic evaluation is considered more appropriate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder affecting every organ system, but disease manifestations vary significantly among affected individuals. The diverse and varied presentations and progression can be life-threatening with significant impact on cost and quality of life. Current surveillance and management practices are highly variable among region and country, reflective of the fact that last consensus recommendations occurred in 1998 and an updated, comprehensive standard is lacking that incorporates the latest scientific evidence and current best clinical practices. The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group, comprising 79 specialists from 14 countries, was organized into 12 separate subcommittees, each led by a clinician with advanced expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex and the relevant medical subspecialty. Each subcommittee focused on a specific disease area with important clinical management implications and was charged with formulating key clinical questions to address within its focus area, reviewing relevant literature, evaluating the strength of data, and providing a recommendation accordingly. The updated consensus recommendations for clinical surveillance and management in tuberous sclerosis complex are summarized here. The recommendations are relevant to the entire lifespan of the patient, from infancy to adulthood, including both individuals where the diagnosis is newly made as well as individuals where the diagnosis already is established. The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Recommendations provide an evidence-based, standardized approach for optimal clinical care provided for individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex.
    Pediatric Neurology 10/2013; 49(4):255-65. DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2013.08.002 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Hormonal therapies with corticotropin as either a gel or an aqueous solution administered intramuscularly or synthetic oral formulation of prednisone are considered by our center as a second-line therapy for infantile spasms. Fewer studies have looked at anticonvulsant efficacy and tolerability for partial seizures in TSC, but like infantile spasms, these seizures can also respond well to treatment with vigabatrin (Camposano, Major, Halpern, & Thiele, 2008; Greiner et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that can affect multiple organ systems, including the brain, heart, skin, kidney, and lung, by formation of benign hamartomas. It can be associated with autism, epilepsy, and other neurocognitive and behavioral disabilities. The incidence of TSC is approximately 1 in 6,000 live births, but it may be underdiagnosed. Mutations to either the TSC1 (coding for hamartin) or TSC2 (coding for tuberin) genes are present in 85% of patients with TSC. The TSC1/TSC2 protein dimer complex is a crucial inhibitory element in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 pathway that regulates cell growth and proliferation. The manifestations of TSC usually require management over the entire life of the patient. Until recently, there were few options, other than surgical removal, for treating the symptoms of TSC related to growth of hamartomas. Increased understanding of the genetic cause of the disease and the underlying dysregulation of the mTOR pathway has led to clinical trials of mTOR inhibitors including sirolimus and everolimus. This article will review the various manifestations of TSC and describe treatment strategies, recommendations for surveillance, and use of mTOR inhibitors in their management.
    08/2013; 45(4):223-239. DOI:10.1097/JNN.0b013e3182986146
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