Comparative analysis of antifibrinolytic medications in pediatric heart surgery
ABSTRACT Recent studies suggest adverse events associated with aprotinin in adults may not occur in children, and there is interest in further pediatric study of aprotinin. However, there are limited contemporary data comparing aprotinin with other available antifibrinolytics (aminocaproic acid [ACA] and tranexamic acid [TXA]) to guide current practice and aid in potential trial design. We performed a comparative analysis in a large multicenter cohort.
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2004-2008) was linked to medication data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database. Efficacy and safety outcomes were evaluated in multivariable analysis adjusting for patient and center factors overall and in neonates and those undergoing redo sternotomy.
A total of 22,258 patients (25 centers) were included: median age, 7.6 months (interquartile range, 2.6-43.4 months). Aprotinin (vs no drug) was associated with a significant reduction in combined hospital mortality/bleeding requiring surgical intervention overall (odds ratio [OR], 0.81; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.68-0.91) and in the redo sternotomy subgroup (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.40-0.80). There was no benefit in neonates and no difference in renal failure requiring dialysis in any group. In comparative analysis, there was no difference in outcome in aprotinin versus ACA recipients. TXA (vs aprotinin) was associated with significantly reduced mortality/bleeding requiring surgical intervention overall (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30-0.74) and in neonates (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.15-0.58).
These observational data suggest aprotinin is associated with reduced bleeding and mortality in children undergoing heart surgery with no increase in dialysis. Comparative analyses suggest similar efficacy of ACA and improved outcomes associated with TXA.
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ABSTRACT: Antifibrinolytic drugs have become almost ubiquitous in their use during major surgery when bleeding is expected or commonplace. Inhibition of the fibrinolytic pathway after tissue injury has been consistently shown to reduce postoperative or traumatic bleeding. There is also some evidence for a reduction of perioperative blood transfusion. However, evidence of complications associated with exaggerated thrombosis also exists, although this appears to be influenced by the choice of the individual agent and the dose administered. There is controversy over the use of the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin, whose license was recently withdrawn but may shortly become available on the market again. In the UK, tranexamic acid, a tissue plasminogen and plasmin inhibitor, is most commonly used, with evidence for benefit in cardiac, orthopaedic, urological, gynaecological, and obstetric surgery. In the USA, ε-aminocaproic acid, which also inhibits plasmin, is commonly used. We have reviewed the current literature for this increasingly popular class of drugs to support clinical judgement in daily anaesthetic practice.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 05/2013; 111(4). DOI:10.1093/bja/aet154
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ABSTRACT: Multicenter databases are increasingly utilized in pediatric cardiovascular research. In this review, we discuss the rational for using these types of data sources, provide several examples of how large datasets have been utilized in clinical research, and describe different mechanisms for linking databases to enable studies not possible with individual datasets alone.Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 01/2012; 33(1):21-24. DOI:10.1016/j.ppedcard.2011.12.004
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have called into question the benefit of perioperative corticosteroids in children undergoing heart surgery, but have been limited by the lack of placebo control, limited power, and grouping of various steroid regimens together in analysis. We evaluated outcomes across methylprednisolone regimens versus no steroids in a large cohort of neonates. Clinical data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database were linked to medication data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database for neonates (≤30 days) undergoing heart surgery (2004-2008) at 25 participating centers. Multivariable analysis adjusting for patient and center characteristics, surgical risk category, and within-center clustering was used to evaluate the association of methylprednisolone regimen with outcome. A total of 3180 neonates were included: 22% received methylprednisolone on both the day before and day of surgery, 12% on the day before surgery only, and 28% on the day of surgery only; 38% did not receive any perioperative steroids. In multivariable analysis, there was no significant mortality or length-of-stay benefit associated with any methylprednisolone regimen versus no steroids, and no difference in postoperative infection. In subgroup analysis by surgical-risk group, there was a significant association of methylprednisolone with infection consistent across all regimens (overall odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.3-5.2) in the lower-surgical-risk group. This multicenter observational analysis did not find any benefit associated with methylprednisolone in neonates undergoing heart surgery and suggested increased infection in certain subgroups. These data reinforce the need for a large randomized trial in this population.PEDIATRICS 02/2012; 129(2):e385-91. DOI:10.1542/peds.2011-2034