Berry Fruit Enhances Beneficial Signaling in the Brain
ABSTRACT Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of preclinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antioxidant effects, dietary supplementation with berry fruits also has direct effects on the brain. Intake of these fruits may help to prevent age-related neurodegeneration and resulting changes in cognitive and motor function. In cell and animal models, berry fruits mediate signaling pathways involved in inflammation and cell survival in addition to enhancing neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and calcium buffering, all of which lead to attenuation of age- and pathology-related deficits in behavior. Recent clinical trials have extended these antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cognition-sparing effects to humans. This paper reviews recent evidence for the beneficial signaling effects of berry fruits on the brain and behavior.
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- "n u t r i t io n j r n l . c o m Nutrition 31 (2015) 531–534 protecting against neuronal stress, and positively mediating signaling pathways in the brain    . Here, research indicates that peak increases in CBF occur 2 h after acute cocoa flavonol intervention , whereas specific increases in endothelium-dependent vasodilation and availability of anthocyanin metabolites can be seen at 1 to 2 and 6 h after acute blueberry anthocyanin intervention . "
ABSTRACT: Objective: Recent evidence from animals and adult humans has demonstrated potential benefits to cognition from flavonoid supplementation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these cognitive benefits extended to a sample of school-aged children. Method: Using a crossover design, with a washout of at least 7 d between drinks, 14 children ages 8 to 10 y consumed either a flavonoid-rich blueberry drink or a matched vehicle. Two h after consumption, the children completed a battery of five cognitive tests comprising the Go-NoGo, Stroop, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Object Location Task, and a Visual N-back. Results: In comparison to the vehicle, the blueberry drink produced significant improvements in the delayed recall of a previously learned list of words, showing for the first time a cognitive benefit for acute flavonoid intervention in children. However, performance on a measure of proactive interference indicated that the blueberry intervention led to a greater negative impact of previously memorized words on the encoding of a set of new words. There was no benefit of our blueberry intervention for measures of attention, response inhibition, or visuospatial memory. Conclusions: Although findings are mixed, the improvements in delayed recall found in this pilot study suggest that, following acute flavonoid-rich blueberry interventions, school-aged children encode memory items more effectively.Nutrition 10/2014; 31(3). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.09.013 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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- "The number of individuals aged 65 years and older will increase steeply in Europe and North America leading to a global demographic shift  . This situation will markedly increase the occurrence of age-related disorders including cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases . "
ABSTRACT: Green tea (GT) displays strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties mostly attributed to (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), while experiments focusing on other catechins are scarce. With the present work we intended to analyze the neuroprotective effects of prolonged consumption of a GT extract (GTE) rich in catechins but poor in EGCG and other GT bioactive components that could also afford benefit. The endpoints evaluated were aging-induced biochemical and morphological changes in the rat hippocampal formation (HF) and behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats aged 12 months were treated with GTE until 19 months of age. This group of animals was compared with control groups aged 19 (C-19M) or 12 months (C-12M). We found that aging increased oxidative markers but GTE consumption protected proteins and lipids against oxidation. The age-associated increase in lipofuscin content and lysosomal volume was also prevented by treatment with GTE. The dendritic arborizations of dentate granule cells of GTE-treated animals presented plastic changes accompanied by an improved spatial learning evaluated with the Morris water maze. Altogether our results demonstrate that the consumption of an extract rich in catechins other than EGCG protected the HF from aging-related declines contributing to improve the redox status and preventing the structural damage observed in old animals, with repercussions on behavioral performance.Behavioural brain research 03/2013; 246. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.02.040 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emerging pathological evidence indicates that major chronic aging-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases, are inflammation-related. In this review, inflammation is examined as a possible underlying basis for the molecular alterations that link aging and age-related pathological processes. A proposal for the molecular inflammation hypothesis of the aging views the redox derangement that occurs during aging as the major factor for increased risk for age-related inflammation. Accumulated data strongly indicate the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and dysregulated gene expression under the age-related oxidative stress seems to be the major culprits. Key players involved in the inflammatory process are the age-related upregulation of NF-kappaB, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, cyclooxygenase-2, adhesion molecules, and inducible NO synthase. Furthermore, data are presented on the molecular events involved in age-related NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation by IkappaB kinase/NIK and MAPKs. Experimental data on anti-aging calorie restriction (CR) for its antiinflammatory efficacy by suppressing the upregulated proinflammatory mediators will be reviewed. Also, the involvement of another super family of transcription factors, PPARs (PPARalpha, gamma) as regulators of proinflammatory responses and NF-kappaB signaling pathway is described as well as a discussion on the physiological significance of a well-maintained balance between NF-kappaB and PPARs.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 03/2006; 8(3-4):572-81. DOI:10.1089/ars.2006.8.572 · 7.41 Impact Factor