Berry Fruit Enhances Beneficial Signaling in the Brain
ABSTRACT Increased lifespans have led to population aging and brought attention to healthcare concerns associated with old age. A growing body of preclinical and clinical research has identified neurological benefits associated with the consumption of berry fruits. In addition to their now well-known antioxidant effects, dietary supplementation with berry fruits also has direct effects on the brain. Intake of these fruits may help to prevent age-related neurodegeneration and resulting changes in cognitive and motor function. In cell and animal models, berry fruits mediate signaling pathways involved in inflammation and cell survival in addition to enhancing neuroplasticity, neurotransmission, and calcium buffering, all of which lead to attenuation of age- and pathology-related deficits in behavior. Recent clinical trials have extended these antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cognition-sparing effects to humans. This paper reviews recent evidence for the beneficial signaling effects of berry fruits on the brain and behavior.
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- "The number of individuals aged 65 years and older will increase steeply in Europe and North America leading to a global demographic shift  . This situation will markedly increase the occurrence of age-related disorders including cancer, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases . "
ABSTRACT: Green tea (GT) displays strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties mostly attributed to (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), while experiments focusing on other catechins are scarce. With the present work we intended to analyze the neuroprotective effects of prolonged consumption of a GT extract (GTE) rich in catechins but poor in EGCG and other GT bioactive components that could also afford benefit. The endpoints evaluated were aging-induced biochemical and morphological changes in the rat hippocampal formation (HF) and behavioral alterations. Male Wistar rats aged 12 months were treated with GTE until 19 months of age. This group of animals was compared with control groups aged 19 (C-19M) or 12 months (C-12M). We found that aging increased oxidative markers but GTE consumption protected proteins and lipids against oxidation. The age-associated increase in lipofuscin content and lysosomal volume was also prevented by treatment with GTE. The dendritic arborizations of dentate granule cells of GTE-treated animals presented plastic changes accompanied by an improved spatial learning evaluated with the Morris water maze. Altogether our results demonstrate that the consumption of an extract rich in catechins other than EGCG protected the HF from aging-related declines contributing to improve the redox status and preventing the structural damage observed in old animals, with repercussions on behavioral performance.Behavioural brain research 03/2013; 246. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2013.02.040 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emerging pathological evidence indicates that major chronic aging-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, dementia, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases, are inflammation-related. In this review, inflammation is examined as a possible underlying basis for the molecular alterations that link aging and age-related pathological processes. A proposal for the molecular inflammation hypothesis of the aging views the redox derangement that occurs during aging as the major factor for increased risk for age-related inflammation. Accumulated data strongly indicate the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and dysregulated gene expression under the age-related oxidative stress seems to be the major culprits. Key players involved in the inflammatory process are the age-related upregulation of NF-kappaB, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, cyclooxygenase-2, adhesion molecules, and inducible NO synthase. Furthermore, data are presented on the molecular events involved in age-related NF-kappaB activation and phosphorylation by IkappaB kinase/NIK and MAPKs. Experimental data on anti-aging calorie restriction (CR) for its antiinflammatory efficacy by suppressing the upregulated proinflammatory mediators will be reviewed. Also, the involvement of another super family of transcription factors, PPARs (PPARalpha, gamma) as regulators of proinflammatory responses and NF-kappaB signaling pathway is described as well as a discussion on the physiological significance of a well-maintained balance between NF-kappaB and PPARs.Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 03/2006; 8(3-4):572-81. DOI:10.1089/ars.2006.8.572 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purple cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) Graffiti represents a unique mutant in conferring ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis, which is caused by the tissue-specific activation of BoMYB2, an ortholog of Arabidopsis PAP2 or MYB113. To gain a better understanding of the regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis, we investigated the interaction among cauliflower MYB-bHLH-WD40 network proteins and examined the interplay of BoMYB2 with various bHLH transcription factors in planta. Yeast two-hybrid studies revealed that cauliflower BoMYBs along with the other regulators formed the MYB-bHLH-WD40 complexes and BobHLH1 acted as a bridge between BoMYB and BoWD40-1 proteins. Different BoMYBs exhibited different binding activity to BobHLH1. Examination of the BoMYB2 transgenic lines in Arabidopsis bHLH mutant backgrounds demonstrated that TT8, EGL3, and GL3 were all involved in the BoMYB2-mediated anthocyanin biosynthesis. Expression of BoMYB2 in Arabidopsis caused up-regulation of AtTT8 and AtEGL3 as well as a subset of anthocyanin structural genes encoding flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase. Taken together, our results show that MYB-bHLH-WD40 network transcription factors regulated the bHLH gene expression, which may represent a critical feature in the control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. BoMYB2 together with various BobHLHs specifically regulated the late anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Our findings provide additional information for the complicated regulatory network of anthocyanin biosynthesis and the transcriptional regulation of transcription factors in vegetable crops.Planta 05/2012; 236(4):1153-64. DOI:10.1007/s00425-012-1665-3 · 3.38 Impact Factor