Structure of C-terminal tandem BRCT repeats of Rtt107 protein reveals critical role in interaction with phosphorylated histone H2A during DNA damage repair.
ABSTRACT Rtt107 (regulator of Ty1 transposition 107; Esc4) is a DNA repair protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can restore stalled replication forks following DNA damage. There are six BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains in Rtt107 that act as binding sites for other recruited proteins during DNA repair. Several Rtt107 binding partners have been identified, including Slx4, Rtt101, Rad55, and the Smc5/6 (structural maintenance of chromosome) protein complex. Rtt107 can reportedly be recruited to chromatin in the presence of Rtt101 and Rtt109 upon DNA damage, but the chromatin-binding site of Rtt107 has not been identified. Here, we report our investigation of the interaction between phosphorylated histone H2A (γH2A) and the C-terminal tandem BRCT repeats (BRCT(5)-BRCT(6)) of Rtt107. The crystal structures of BRCT(5)-BRCT(6) alone and in a complex with γH2A reveal the molecular basis of the Rtt107-γH2A interaction. We used in vitro mutagenesis and a fluorescence polarization assay to confirm the location of the Rtt107 motif that is crucial for this interaction. In addition, these assays indicated that this interaction requires the phosphorylation of H2A. An in vivo phenotypic analysis in yeast demonstrated the critical role of BRCT(5)-BRCT(6) and its interaction with γH2A during the DNA damage response. Our results shed new light on the molecular mechanism by which Rtt107 is recruited to chromatin in response to stalled DNA replication forks.
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ABSTRACT: Checkpoints monitor critical cell cycle events such as chromosome duplication and segregation. They are highly conserved mechanisms that prevent progression into the next phase of the cell cycle when cells are unable to accomplish the previous event properly. During S phase, cells also provide a surveillance mechanism called the DNA replication checkpoint, which consists of a conserved kinase cascade that is provoked by insults that block or slow down replication forks. The DNA replication checkpoint is crucial for maintaining genome stability, because replication forks become vulnerable to collapse when they encounter obstacles such as nucleotide adducts, nicks, RNA-DNA hybrids, or stable protein-DNA complexes. These can be exogenously induced or can arise from endogenous cellular activity. Here, we summarize the initiation and transduction of the replication checkpoint as well as its targets, which coordinate cell cycle events and DNA replication fork stability.Genes. 09/2013; 4(3):388-434.
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ABSTRACT: Homo sapiens ECT2 is a cell cycle regulator that plays critical roles in cytokinesis. ECT2 activity is restrained during interphase via intra-molecular interactions that involve its N-terminal triple-BRCT-domain and its C-terminal DH-PH domain. At anaphase, this self-inhibitory mechanism is relieved by Plk1-phosphorylated CYK-4, which directly engages the ECT2 BRCT domain. To provide a structural perspective for this auto-inhibitory property, we solved the crystal structure of the ECT2 triple-BRCT-domain. In addition, we systematically analyzed the interaction between the ECT2 BRCT domains with phospho-peptides derived from its binding partner CYK-4, and have identified Ser164 as the major phospho-residue that links CYK-4 to the second ECT2 BRCT domain.FEBS Letters 07/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ATR and ATM kinase phosphorylate H2A in fungi and H2AX in animals on a C-terminal serine in response to genotoxic stress. The resulting modified histone, called γH2A, recruits chromatin-binding proteins that stabilize stalled replication forks or promote DNA double strand break repair. To identify genomic loci that might be prone to replication fork stalling or DNA breakage in Neurospora crassa, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of γH2A followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq). γH2A-containing nucleosomes are enriched in Neurospora heterochromatin domains. These domains are comprised of A:T-rich repetitive DNA sequences associated with histone H3 methylated at lysine-9, the H3K9me-binding protein Heterochromatin Protein-1 (HP1), and DNA cytosine methylation. H3K9 methylation, catalyzed by DIM-5, is required for normal γH2A localization. In contrast, γH2A is not required for H3K9 methylation or DNA methylation. Normal γH2A localization also depends on HP1 and a histone deacetylase, HDA-1, but is independent of the DNA methyltransferase, DIM-2. γH2A is globally induced in dim-5 mutants under normal growth conditions, suggesting that the DNA damage response is activated in these mutants in the absence of exogenous DNA damage. Together, these data suggest that heterochromatin formation is essential for normal DNA replication or repair.Eukaryotic Cell 05/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor