Osteoblastic expansion induced by parathyroid hormone receptor signaling in murine osteocytes is not sufficient to increase hematopoietic stem cells
ABSTRACT Microenvironmental expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is induced by treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) or activation of the PTH receptor (PTH1R) in osteoblastic cells; however, the osteoblastic subset mediating this action of PTH is unknown. Osteocytes are terminally differentiated osteoblasts embedded in mineralized bone matrix but are connected with the BM. Activation of PTH1R in osteocytes increases osteoblastic number and bone mass. To establish whether osteocyte-mediated PTH1R signaling expands HSCs, we studied mice expressing a constitutively active PTH1R in osteocytes (TG mice). Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and trabecular bone were increased in TG mice without changes in BM phenotypic HSCs or HSC function. TG mice had progressively increased trabecular bone but decreased HSC function. In severely affected TG mice, phenotypic HSCs were decreased in the BM but increased in the spleen. TG osteocytes had no increase in signals associated with microenvironmental HSC support, and the spindle-shaped osteoblastic cells that increased with PTH treatment were not present in TG bones. These findings demonstrate that activation of PTH1R signaling in osteocytes does not expand BM HSCs, which are instead decreased in TG mice. Therefore, osteocytes do not mediate the HSC expansion induced by PTH1R signaling. Further, osteoblastic expansion is not sufficient to increase HSCs.
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ABSTRACT: Adult stem cell therapies are increasingly prevalent for the treatment of damaged or diseased tissues, but most of the improvements observed to date are attributed to the ability of stem cells to produce paracrine factors that have a trophic effect on existing tissue cells, improving their functional capacity. It is now clear that this ability to produce trophic factors is a normal and necessary function for some stem cell populations. In vivo adult stem cells are thought to self-renew due to local signals from the microenvironment where they live, the niche. Several niches have now been identified which harbor multiple stem cell populations. In three of these niches - the Drosophila testis, the bulge of the mammalian hair follicle, and the mammalian bone marrow - one type of stem cell has been found to produce factors that contribute to the maintenance of a second stem cell population in the shared niche. In this review, I will examine the architecture of these three niches and discuss the molecular signals involved. Together, these examples establish a new paradigm for stem cell behavior, that stem cells can promote the maintenance of other stem cells.Frontiers in Genetics 12/2013; 4:257. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00257
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ABSTRACT: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is caused by the malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem cells in leukemic stem cells. From the introduction of the anti-cancer drug imatinib, the therapy of CML has been positively transformed. However, following treatment most patients display a residual CML disease attributed to the presence of quiescent leukemic stem cells intrinsically resistant to imatinib. Considering that the later cancer cells lose their chemoresistance in vitro, it appears that the stromal microenvironment plays a crucial role in CML-affected cell chemoresistance. In the present review, we summarize and discuss the recent findings on signaling pathways through which stromal cells sustain CML leukemogenesis, as well as leukemic stem cell maintenance and chemoresistance.Cellular Signalling 05/2012; 24(9):1883-8. DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2012.05.015 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transplantation of 1 or 2 umbilical cord blood products is a useful alternative stem cell source. However, the limited number of stem cells in each infusion results in slow engraftment. In mouse models, administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective way to enhance the ability of limited numbers of hematopoietic stem cells to support hematopoiesis. In this study, patients received either a myeloablative or a reduced-intensity double umbilical cord blood transplantation, followed by PTH at 100 μg/day for 28 days. Thirteen patients (median age, 42 years) were enrolled. All patients engrafted; the median time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment of >20 × 10(9) cells/L was 30 days and 61 days, respectively. The incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 38.5% at day 100. Four deaths occurred before day 100, prompting early study closure. No patient who received a myeloablative regimen relapsed. Overall survival at 6 months after transplantation was 62%, and disease-free survival at 2 years was 39%. At the dose and schedule studied, there was no evidence that PTH influenced blood count recovery.Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 07/2012; 18(12). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.06.016 · 3.35 Impact Factor