Basic psychological need satisfaction, stress-related appraisals, and dancers' cortisol and anxiety responses

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, United Kingdom.
Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology (Impact Factor: 2.59). 12/2011; 33(6):828-46.
Source: PubMed


Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) posits basic psychological need satisfaction (BPNS) as essential for optimal functioning and health. Grounded in this framework, the current study examined the role of BPNS in dancers' cognitive appraisals and hormonal and emotional responses to performance stress. Dancers reported their degree of BPNS 1 month before a solo performance. Threat and challenge appraisals of the solo were recorded 2 hr before the performance. Salivary cortisol and anxiety were measured 15 min before, and 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postperformance. Higher BPNS was associated with lower cortisol responses and anxiety intensity. Challenge appraisals mediated the association between BPNS and cortisol. Threat appraisals mediated the BPNS-anxiety intensity relationship. These findings point to the potential importance of performers' BPNS for optimal emotional and hormonal homeostasis in performance conditions.

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    • "The role of needs satisfaction as a coping resource in predicting cognitive appraisals has also been suggested. For example , Quested et al. (2011) have shown that the association between basic needs satisfaction and dancers' stress responses were mediated by challenge and threat appraisals. If people feel autonomous, competent, and related in their social context during their stressful encounters, they would be more likely to appraise the events as challenges that can be overcome, instead of threats (potential harm) or damages (actual harm) that can undermine well-being. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: There is growing interest in understanding people's positive changes after their negative life experiences. Previous studies have shown that coping resources, cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies are associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG). This study aimed to extend previous findings by applying the stress and coping model and the self-determination theory to further understand the psychological factors (including basic psychological needs satisfaction and coping variables) that promote PTG. Method: An ethnically diverse sample of 454 college students participated in an online survey. A hierarchical regression was conducted to examine the associations among the coping variables and PTG. Results: After we controlled for gender, number of types of traumatic events, and the level of current distress due to the most traumatic event, results from a hierarchical regression analysis revealed that satisfaction of relatedness need, challenge appraisal, emotional expression, acceptance, and positive reframing were associated with higher PTG. Conclusions: Our findings support the facilitating role of these factors in promoting PTG. Interventions that help people to reevaluate the impact of the negative events, improve people's skills in using appropriate cognitive and emotional coping strategies, and facilitate supportive environment for psychological needs satisfaction may increase people's PTG. (PsycINFO Database Record
    Psychological Trauma Theory Research Practice and Policy 10/2015; DOI:10.1037/tra0000091 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    • "These authors have postulated that the focus of attention may be on task-relevant cues following a challenge evaluation, whereas attention may be directed to task-irrelevant cues following a threat evaluation. As a threat evaluation is linked to increased anxiety (Jones et al., 2009; Moore et al., 2012; Quested et al., 2011), parallels can be drawn to recent research which has identified that increased anxiety causes disruptions to attentional control and a breakdown in perceptual motor skill performance (see Wilson, 2012 for a review). Much of this research has discussed the anxiety-induced impairment of optimal attentional control in relation to the predictions of attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: The biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat (Blascovich, 2008) suggests that individuals who evaluate a performance situation as a challenge will perform better than those who evaluate it as a threat. However, limited research has examined (a) the influence of challenge and threat evaluations on learned motor performance under pressure and (b) the attentional processes by which this effect occurs. In the present study 52 novices performed a motor task (laparoscopic surgery), for which optimal visual attentional control has been established. Participants performed a Baseline trial (when the task was novel) and were then trained to proficiency before performing under pressurized conditions designed to increase anxiety (Pressure). At Baseline, regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between challenge/threat evaluations and the outcome variables (performance, cardiovascular response, and visual attention). At Pressure, hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for the degree of learning) were performed to examine the relationship between challenge/threat evaluations and the outcome variables. At both Baseline and Pressure tests evaluating the task as more of a challenge was associated with more effective attentional control and superior performance. In the Baseline test, evaluating the task as more of a challenge was associated with differential cardiovascular responses. Although there is some support for an attentional explanation of differential performance effects, additional analyses did not reveal mediators of the relationship between challenge/threat evaluations and motor performance. The findings have implications for the training and performance of motor skills in pressurized environments (e.g., surgery, sport, aviation). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied 09/2013; 19(3):185-94. DOI:10.1037/a0034106 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    • "In fact, to limit the number of variables included in the statistical analysis, a majority of the works bring the various motivational regulations together in the form of two indices, reflecting respectively self-determined versus controlled form of motivation (e.g., Fortier, Sweet, O'Sullivan & Williams, 2007), and even a single self-determination index (Hagger, Chatzisarantis, & Harris, 2006). Similarly, some studies have combined the three psychological needs as a single indicator (e.g., Quested et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. - Regular physical activity (PA) practice represents a key component of obesity treatment. Objective. - Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this cross-sectional study aimed to explore the motivational characteristics associated with PA practice among obese adolescents. Method. - One hundred and five overweight or obese adolescents (mean age = 15 years old, SD = 2.69) were questioned about their level of PA, motivational regulations toward PA and level of satisfaction of basic psychological needs. Results. - Data revealed that satisfaction of autonomy and relatedness needs is positively associated with autonomous forms of motivation (e.g., for integrated regulation beta = .44; and 0.35, respectively, p < .01). Otherwise, non-satisfaction of the needs of autonomy and competence is associated with the most controlled forms of motivation (e.g., for external regulation beta = -.27,p < .01; and -.18,p < .05, respectively). In turn, a high level of identified regulation, a low level of external regulation and a high level of satisfaction of the need for competence are associated with weekly PA (beta = .28; -.19 and .24, respectively, p < .05). Conclusion. - SDT appears as an interesting theoretical framework to explore motivational antecedents of PA among obese adolescents.
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