A new therapeutic strategy for malaria: targeting T cell exhaustion.

Nature Immunology (Impact Factor: 24.97). 02/2012; 13(2):113-5. DOI: 10.1038/ni.2211
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 10 is a cytokine with the ability to reduce or terminate inflammation. Chronic viral infection, such as infection of chronic hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV, has increased levels of interleukin 10 in peripheral blood. Serum IL-10 levels are also high in certain cancers. Blocking IL-10 signalling at the time of immunisation clears chronic viral infection and prevents tumour growth in animal models. We review recent advances in this area, with the emphasis on potential use of this novel strategy to treat chronic viral infection and cancer in human. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) inhibit proliferation of activated T cells, and IFN-γ plays an important role in this process. This IFN-γ-licensed veto property is IDO-dependent. To further decipher the mechanistic underpinnings of MSC veto function on T cells, we investigated the effect of MSCs and IFN-γ-licensed MSCs on T cell effector function as assayed by cytokine secretion of T cells. Although MSCs and IFN-γ-licensed MSCs inhibit T cell proliferation, only IFN-γ-licensed MSCs significantly inhibit Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) production by T cells. Additionally, IFN-γ-licensed MSCs inhibit T cell degranulation as well as single, double, and triple cytokine-producing T cells. Although IFN-γ-licensed MSCs upregulate their IDO activity, we found that MSC IDO catalytic function is dispensable with regard to MSC-driven inhibition of T cell effector function. Novel flow cytometry based functional screening of MSC-expressed, IFN-γ-licensed inhibitory molecules identified B7H1 and B7DC/PD1 pathways as essential effectors in blocking T cell function. Small interfering RNA-mediated blocking of B7H1 and B7DC reverses the inhibitory potential of IFN-γ-licensed MSCs on T cell effector function. Mechanistic analysis revealed that clustering of MHC and coinhibitory molecules are indispensable for the inhibitory effect of IFN-γ MSCs. Although exogenous IL-2 reverses B7H1-Ig-mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation, it does not affect the veto function of IFN-γ MSCs on both T cell proliferation and effector function. Our results reveal a new immunosuppressive property of IFN-γ-licensed MSCs that inhibits T cell effector function independent of IDO but through the ligands for PD1.
    The Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 192(4). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301828 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In many respects, the most remarkable chemical substances within the genome of eukaryotic cells are remarkable proteins which are the critical structural and functional units of living cells. The specifications for everything that goes in the cell are natural digital-to-digital decoding process in an archive sequence by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and an articulate construction by ribonucleic acid (RNA). The products of DNA transcription are long polymers of ribonucleotides rather than deoxyribonucleotides and are termed ribonucleic acids. Certain deoxyribonucleotide sequences, or genes, give rise to transfer RNA (tRNA) and other ribosomal RNA (rRNA) when transcribed. The ribonucleotide sequences fold extensively and rRNA is associated with specific proteins to yield the essential cell components, ribosomes. Transcription of other special sequences yields messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that contain ribonucleotide sequences that will be ultimately translated into new types of amino acid sequences of functional cellular protein molecules. This switch to a different variety of cellular molecular sequences is complex, but each sequence of the three ribonucleotides specifies the insertion of one particular amino acid into the polypeptide chain under production. Whilst mRNA is considered the vehicle by which genetic information is transmitted from the genome and allocated in the appropriate cytoplasmic sites for translation into protein via cap-dependent mechanism, the actual translation depends also on the presence of other so-called household and luxury protein molecules. Recent evidence suggests RNA species are required at initiation, because treatment of cells with antibiotics or drugs that inhibit RNA synthesis cause a decrease in protein synthesis. The rRNA is necessary as a structural constituent of the ribosomes upon which translation takes place, whereas tRNA is necessary as an adaptor in amino acid activation and elongation protein chains to ribosomes. In this article, we review malignant tumor, with stem like properties, and recent technical advances into the phenomenon of micro-particles and micro-vesicles containing cell-free nucleic acids that circulate plasma. New areas of research have been opened into screening tumor telomerase progression, prognosis of aptamers targeting cell surface, monitoring the efficacy of anticancer therapies, oncogenic transformation of host cell, and RNA polymerases role in the cell cycle progression and differentiation.
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