Immunogenicity and tolerability of a multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B (4CMenB) vaccine in healthy adolescents in Chile: a phase 2b/3 randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled study.
ABSTRACT Effective glycoconjugate vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y have been developed, but serogroup B remains a major cause of severe invasive disease in infants and adolescents worldwide. We assessed immunogenicity and tolerability of a four-component vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents.
We did a randomised, observer-blind, placebo-controlled, study at 12 sites in Santiago and Valparaíso, Chile. Adolescents aged 11-17 years received one, two, or three doses of 4CMenB at 1 month, 2 month, or 6 month intervals. Immunogenicity was assessed as serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) against three reference strains for individual vaccine antigens, and assessed by ELISA against the fourth strain. Local and systemic reactions were recorded 7 days after each vaccination, and adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Participants were initially randomised to five groups (3:3:3:3:1) during the primary phase to receive either one dose, two doses 1 or 2 months apart, or three doses of 4CMenB, or three doses of placebo, with an additional three groups generated for the booster phase. All subjects received at least one dose of 4CMenB. Geometric mean titres, proportions of participants with serum bactericidal antibody titres of 4 or more, and Clopper-Pearson 95% CIs were calculated. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00661713.
Overall, 1631 adolescents (mean age 13·8 [SD 1·9] years) received at least one dose of 4CMenB. After two or three doses, 99-100% of recipients had hSBA titres of 4 or more against test strains, compared with 92-97% after one dose (p<0·0145) and 29-50% after placebo. At 6 months 91-100% of participants still had titres of 4 or more for each strain after two or three doses, but only 73-76% after one dose; seroresponse rates reached 99-100% for each strain after second or third doses at 6 months. Local and systemic reaction rates were similar after each 4CMenB injection and did not increase with subsequent doses, but remained higher than placebo. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported and no significant safety signals were identified.
On the basis of immunogenicity responses this study provides evidence for an adolescent 4CMenB vaccine schedule of two doses, 1-6 months apart, to provide protection against meningococcal B infection. The extent of this protection against meningococcus B variants circulating worldwide will be determined by national surveys.
Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics.
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ABSTRACT: In countries with established programmes for vaccination of infants, toddlers and adolescents with meningococcal conjugate vaccines, serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease remains the major cause of septicaemia and meningitis in the paediatric and adolescent age groups. Novartis has developed a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, 4CMenB, to meet this need. We reviewed all 4CMenB studies. The studies found 4CMenB to be highly immunogenic when administered in all schedules, with protective antibody levels (serum bactericidal antibody titres ≥4 or ≥5 with human complement, hSBA) against serogroup B strains expressing vaccine antigens in >95% of vaccinated cohorts. When antibody levels waned, all tested groups demonstrated booster responses. Although possibly an underestimation, the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) technique predicts that global coverage of 4CMenB against all serogroup B strains is in the range 66% (Canada) to 91% (USA). The vaccine was found to be generally well tolerated, although local and systemic reactions, notably fever in infants, typical of many vaccines, were increased following concomitant administration of 4CMenB with routine vaccines. When tested, prophylactic paracetamol significantly decreased the frequency and severity of reactions in infants, with no clinically significant impact on immunogenicity of 4CMenB or concomitant routine vaccines. The vaccine is approved for use in the following age groups in the European Union (2 months+), Canada (2 months through 17 years), Australia (2 months+) and Chile (2 months+), following clinical evaluation in 4843 infants and toddlers, and 1712 adolescents and adults, in schedules including a three-dose (2, 3, 4 or 2, 4, 6 months) and a two-dose (6-11 months) infant series with a booster in the second year of life, a two-dose series in toddlers (12-23 months) and children (2-10 years) given 2 months apart (with a booster at least in the EU), and a two-dose series in adolescents (11-17 years) given 1-6 months apart. 4CMenB presents a solution to the unmet medical need of offering protection against serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in all age groups above 2 months.Therapeutic advances in vaccines. 01/2015; 3(1):13-23.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To use mathematical and economic models to predict the epidemiological and economic impact of vaccination with Bexsero, designed to protect against group B meningococcal disease, to help inform vaccine policy in the United Kingdom. Design: Modelling study. Setting: England. Population: People aged 0-99. Interventions: Incremental impact of introductory vaccine strategies simulated with a transmission dynamic model of meningococcal infection and vaccination including potential herd effects. Model parameters included recent evidence on the vaccine characteristics, disease burden, costs of care, litigation costs, and loss of quality of life from disease, including impacts on family and network members. The health impact of vaccination was assessed through cases averted and quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Main outcome measures: Cases averted and cost per QALY gained through vaccination; programmes were deemed cost effective against a willingness to pay of £20 000 (€25 420, $32 677) per QALY gained from an NHS and personal and social services perspective. Results: In the short term, case reduction is greatest with routine infant immunisation (26.3% of cases averted in the first five years). This strategy could be cost effective at £3 (€3.8, $4.9) a vaccine dose, given several favourable assumptions and the use of a quality of life adjustment factor. If the vaccine can disrupt meningococcal transmission more cases are prevented in the long term with an infant and adolescent combined programme (51.8% after 30 years), which could be cost effective at £4 a vaccine dose. Assuming the vaccine reduces acquisition by 30%, adolescent vaccination alone is the most favourable strategy economically, but takes more than 20 years to substantially reduce the number of cases. Conclusions: Routine infant vaccination is the most effective short term strategy and could be cost effective with a low vaccine price. Critically, if the vaccine reduces carriage acquisition in teenagers, the combination of infant and adolescent vaccination could result in substantial long term reductions in cases and be cost effective with competitive vaccine pricing.BMJ (online) 10/2014; · 16.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PorA, fetA and fHbp are three antigen encoding genes useful for meningococcal typing and FHbp is an important component of meningococcal B vaccines. We performed sequence analysis of meningococcal porA, fetA and fHbp genes on 128 isolates from Western Australia, relating results to age, gender, race and geographic region. We found predominantly PorA subtypes P1.22,14-16 (n = 23) and P1.7-2,4 (n = 19); FetA subtypes F1-5 (n = 41), F3-6 (n = 11), F5-1 (n = 10), F5-2 (n = 9), F5-5 (n = 8), F3-3 (n = 8); and FHbp variant groups 1 (n = 65) and 2 (n = 44). PorA P1.22,14-16 and FHbp variant group 2 were associated with younger age and aboriginality. FHbp modular groups of the bivalent recombinant FHbp vaccine and the multicomponent 4CMenB vaccine make up 8.3% and 47.7% respectively of the examined serogroup B isolates from 2000-2011, however to estimate vaccine efficacy requires an account of all vaccine antigens and their levels of expression.BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 14(1):686. · 2.56 Impact Factor