Triptolide enhances the sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells to dexamethasone via microRNAs.

Department of Hematology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.
Leukemia & lymphoma (Impact Factor: 2.61). 02/2012; 53(6):1188-95. DOI: 10.3109/10428194.2011.638069
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently triptolide (TPL) has been proved to have the capacity to inhibit the proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells as well as leukemic cells in vitro. In the present study, we found a synergistic effect when TPL was added to dexamethasone to induce apoptosis in MM.1S cells. This combination induced a significantly higher proportion of apoptotic cells compared with those treated with each drug separately. TPL down-regulated the expression of miR142 - 5p and miR181a, which have been shown to inhibit glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. MicroRNA mimics and inhibitors inhibited or enhanced the synergistic effect between TPL and dexamethasone in inducing apoptosis in MM.1S cells, suggesting an important role of miR142 - 5p and miR181a in GR regulation by TPL. The in vitro proapoptotic effect of TPL associated with dexamethasone reveals a new lead for further clinical investigation into the treatment of patients with MM with TPL.

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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To explore whether triptolide (TPL) can enhance drug sensitivity of resistant myeloid leukemia cell lines through downregulation of HIF-1α and Nrf2. Materials & methods: HL60/A and K562/G cells were subjected to different treatments and thereafter an methyl thiazole tetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry, western blot and real-time PCR were used to determine IC50, apoptotic status and expression of Nrf2, HIF-1α and their target genes. Results: Doxorubicin- or imatinib-induced apoptosis was enhanced when anticancer agents were used in combination with TPL. When combined with TPL, both doxorubicin and imatinib downregulate Nrf2 and HIF-1α expression at protein and mRNA levels. Genes downstream of Nrf2, for example, NQO1, GSR and HO-1, as well as target genes of HIF-1α, for example, BNIP3, VEGF and CAIX are also downregulated at the mRNA level. Conclusion: TPL is able to enhance drug sensitivity of resistant myeloid leukemia cell lines through downregulation of HIF-1α and Nrf2. Original submitted 7 January 2013; Revision submitted 20 June 2013.
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    Dataset: ejh12124
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    ABSTRACT: Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are considered to be the main reason for relapse and are also regarded as a major hurdle for the success of acute myeloid leukemia chemotherapy. Thus, new drugs targeting LSCs are urgently needed. Triptolide (TPL) is cytotoxic to LSCs. Low dose of TPL enhances the cytotoxicity of idarubicin (IDA) in LSCs. In this study, the ability of TPL to induce apoptosis in leukemic stem cell (LSC)-like cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia cell line KG1a was investigated. LSC-like cells sorted from KG1a were subjected to cell cycle analysis and different treatments, and then followed by in vitro methyl thiazole tetrazolium bromide cytotoxicity assay. The effects of different drug combinations on cell viability, intracellular reactive-oxygen species (ROS) activity, colony-forming ability and apoptotic status were also examined. Combination index-isobologram analysis indicates a synergistic effect between TPL and IDA, which inhibits the colony-forming ability of LSC-like cells and induces their apoptosis. We further investigated the expression of Nrf2, HIF-1α and their downstream target genes. LSC-like cells treated with both TPL and IDA have increased levels of ROS, decreased expression of Nrf2 and HIF-1α pathways. Our findings indicate that the synergistic cytotoxicity of TPL and IDA in LSCs-like cells may attribute to both induction of ROS and inhibition of the Nrf2 and HIF-1α pathways.
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