Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activities in the human lens epithelial cells and serum of steroid induced posterior subcapsular cataracts.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities in patients with steroid induced posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC).
This prospective, observational study comprised of 156 patients having either steroid induced PSC (n=50) or non-steroidal PSC (n=106) were performed to evaluate the level of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the lens epithelial cells (LECs) and the serum. Anterior lens capsules harboring LECs were obtained during phacoemulsification and peripheral blood was collected from patients before administration of anesthesia. Serum was separated by centrifugation at 10,000× g for 15 min at 4 °C. The LECs and serum samples were processed to analyze MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities using succinylated gelatin assay. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to determine the mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in LECs. The mRNA levels were expressed as a ratio, using the delta-delta method for comparing the relative expression results between cases with steroid induced PSC and cases with non-steroidal PSC. MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels were also compared in the two groups using immunolocalization.
The level of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was found to be high in LECs and serum of cases with steroid induced PSC. Further in all steroid induced cases, a 1.4 fold increase was observed in MMP-2 activity in LECs and a 1.4 fold increase in MMP-9 activity in the serum. Both qRT-PCR and immunolocalization showed increased expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity.
MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in both LECs and serum was significantly higher in cases with steroid induced PSC. The possible use of MMP-9 as a non-invasive biomarker in ascertaining the presence of steroid induced PSC should be evaluated using a larger sample size.