Chlamydia infection status, genotype, and age-related macular degeneration.
ABSTRACT To evaluate whether Chlamydia (C.) infections are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to assess if this association is influenced by the complement factor H (CFH) Y402H or the high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) rs11200638 risk genotypes.
One hundred ninety-nine AMD patients with early and late forms of the disease and 100 unaffected controls, at least 50 years old were included in the study. Patients in the AMD and control groups were selected based on known CFH Y402H variant genotype status (one third homozygous CC, one third heterozygous CT, and one third wild-type TT). Plasma from all patients and controls was tested for C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and C. psittaci IgG seropositivity using a micro-immunofluorescent assay to establish previous infection status. Assays were conducted blind to risk genotypes and the results analyzed using univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis.
IgG seropositivity to C. pneumoniae was most prevalent (69.2%, n=207), followed by C. trachomatis (7.4%, n=22) and C. psittaci (3.3%, n=10). No association was found between each of the three Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity (early/late). There was also no significant association between Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity, in patients carrying at least one CFH Y402H risk allele (C) or HTRA1 rs11200638 risk allele (A), with univariate or logistic regression analysis.
Chlamydia infection status does not appear to be associated with AMD status or severity. The presence of CFH Y402H and HTRA1 rs11200638 risk genotypes does not alter this negative association.
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ABSTRACT: Over the course of a 20-month period, in a hospital respiratory ward in which ciprofloxacin was often used as empirical antimicrobial therapy for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs), 16 patients with chronic bronchitis developed nosocomial LRTIs caused by penicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotype 23 F). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin for all isolates from the first 9 patients was 4 microg/mL, in association with a parC mutation. Isolates from the subsequent 7 patients all had a ciprofloxacin MIC of 16 microg/mL, in association with an additional mutation in gyrA. The MICs for this isolate were 8 microg/mL of levofloxacin (resistant), 2 microg/mL of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin (intermediately resistant), and 0.12 microg/mL of gemifloxacin. This outbreak demonstrates the ability of S. pneumoniae to acquire multiple mutations that result in increasing levels of resistance to the fluoroquinolones and to be transmitted from person to person.Clinical Infectious Diseases 09/2001; 33(4):517-22. · 9.15 Impact Factor