Endoscopic or surgical intervention for painful obstructive chronic pancreatitis
ABSTRACT Endoscopy and surgery are the treatment modalities of choice in patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis. Physicians face the decision between endoscopy and surgery for this group of patients, without clear consensus.
To assess and compare the effectiveness and complications of surgical and endoscopic interventions in the management of pain for obstructive chronic pancreatitis.
We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index; and performed a cross-reference search. Two review authors performed the selection of trials independently.
All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating endoscopic or surgical interventions for obstructive chronic pancreatitis. All trials were included irrespective of blinding, number of patients randomised and language of the article.
Two authors independently extracted data from the articles. The methodological quality of included trials was evaluated. Authors were requested additional information in the case of missing data.
We screened 2082 publications and identified three eligible trials. Two trials compared endoscopic intervention to surgical intervention. These included a total of 111 patients, 55 in the endoscopic group and 56 in the surgical group. A higher proportion of patients with pain relief was found in the surgical group compared to the endoscopic group (partial or complete pain relief: RR 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 2.37; complete pain relief: RR 2.45, 95% CI 1.18 to 5.09). Surgical intervention resulted in improved quality of life and improved preservation of exocrine pancreatic function in one trial. The number of patients did not allow for a reliable evaluation of morbidity and mortality between the two treatment modalities. One trial compared surgical intervention to conservative treatment. It included 32 patients: 17 in the surgical group and 15 in the conservative group. The trial showed that surgical intervention resulted in a higher percentage of patients with pain relief and better preservation of pancreatic function. The trial had methodological limitations and the number of patients was relatively small.
For patients with obstructive chronic pancreatitis and dilated pancreatic duct, this review showed that surgery is superior to endoscopy in terms of pain control. Morbidity and mortality seemed not to differ between the two intervention modalities, but the small trials identified do not provide sufficient power to detect the small differences expected in this outcome.Regarding the comparison of surgical intervention versus conservative treatment, this review has shown that surgical intervention in an early stage of chronic pancreatitis seems to be a promising approach in terms of pain control and pancreatic function. Confirmation of these results is needed in other trials due to the methodological limitations and limited number of patients of the present evidence.
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ABSTRACT: Apart from local inflammation and defects in secretion, central mechanisms are important for pain etiology in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, centrally acting co-analgetic agents can be used in addition to classical pain medications. Endoscopic interventions are preferred in patients with obvious dilation of the pancreatic duct. Surgical interventions are generally more effective although they are usually reserved for patients with prior failure of conservative treatment. Diverse surgical options with different efficacies and morbidities are used in individual patients.One of the main problems in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases is abdominal pain. Primarily the underlying disease needs to be adequately treated. Symptomatic pain management will most likely include treatment with acetaminophen and tramadol as well as occasionally principles of a multimodal pain regimen. For the treatment of arthralgia as well as enteropathy-associated arthritis the same treatment options are available as for other spondyloarthritic disorders.Der Schmerz 06/2014; 28(3):294-9. DOI:10.1007/s00482-014-1407-5 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abdominal pain is a principal and in many cases, the only observable symptom of chronic pancreatitis. Like all chronic pain conditions, managing abdominal pain in chronic pancreatitis remains an onerous task for health care providers. Different mechanisms have been postulated in trying to better understand the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis. This review seeks to take a broad look at the various options that are available to providers in trying to achieve pain relief and a better quality of life for chronic pancreatitis patients.Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology 09/2013; 6:167-171. DOI:10.2147/CEG.S50827
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ABSTRACT: Endoscopic therapy in chronic pancreatitis (CP) aims to provide pain relief and to treat local complications, by using the decompression of the pancreatic duct and the drainage of pseudocysts and biliary strictures, respectively. This is the reason for using it as first-line therapy for painful uncomplicated CP. The clinical response has to be evaluated at 6-8 weeks, when surgery may be chosen. This article reviews the main possibilities of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) therapies. Endotherapy for pancreatic ductal stones uses ultrasound wave lithotripsy and sometimes additional stone extractions. The treatment of pancreatic duct strictures consists of a single large stenting for 1 year. If the stricture persists, simultaneous multiple stents are applied. In case of unsuccessful ERCP, the EUS-guided drainage of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) or a rendezvous technique can solve the ductal strictures. EUS-guided celiac plexus block has limited efficiency in CP. The drainage of symptomatic or complicated pancreatic pseudocysts can be performed transpapillarily or transgastrically/transduodenally, preferably by EUS guidance. When the biliary stricture is symptomatic or progressive, multiple plastic stents are indicated. In conclusion, as in many fields of symptomatic treatment, endoscopy remains the first choice, either by using ERCP or EUS-guided procedures, after consideration of a multidisciplinary team with endoscopists, surgeons, and radiologists. However, what is crucial is establishing the right timing for surgery.Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology 01/2015; 8:1-11. DOI:10.2147/CEG.S43096