A case of minimal change nephrotic syndrome with immunoglobulin A nephropathy transitioned to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
ABSTRACT A 50-year-old woman with a 1-month history of lower extremity edema and a 5 kg weight increase was admitted to our hospital with suspected nephrotic syndrome in October 1999. Urine protein level was 3.5 g per day, 10-15 erythrocytes in urine per high-power field, and serum albumin level 2.5 g/dl. Furthermore, an accumulation of pleural effusion was confirmed by chest X-ray. The results of a renal biopsy indicated slight mesangial proliferation in the glomeruli by light microscopy, and an immunofluorescence study confirmed the deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and C3 in the mesangial area. Diffuse attenuation of foot processes and dense deposits in the mesangial area were observed by electron microscopy. Treatment with 40 mg/day of prednisolone was effective, and proteinuria was negative 1 month later. Because of this course, we diagnosed minimal change nephrotic syndrome complicated by mild-proliferative IgA nephropathy. In November 2000, there was a relapse of nephrotic syndrome, which was believed to be induced by an influenza vaccination, but response to increased steroid treatment was favorable, and proteinuria disappeared on day 13 of steroid increase. A second relapse in May 2001, showed steroid resistance with renal insufficiency, and an increase in the selectivity index to 0.195. Light microscopy revealed focal sclerotic lesions of the glomeruli, and an immunofluorescence study revealed attenuation of mesangial IgA and C3 deposition. These findings led to the diagnosis that minimal change nephrotic syndrome had transitioned to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, whereby mesangial IgA deposition was reduced by immunosuppressive treatment. Subsequently, her renal function gradually worsened to the point of end-stage renal failure by 27 months after the second relapse of nephrotic syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with IgA nephropathy typically present with hematuria and subnephrotic proteinuria. Nephrotic syndrome is uncommon in IgA nephropathy, and when present, it is usually associated with severe histologic features, such as endocapillary proliferation, segmental sclerosis, and crescent formation. Rarely, patients with IgA nephropathy present with nephrotic syndrome and only mild mesangial disease. This study sought to better characterize these patients. A retrospective review of cases of IgA nephropathy diagnosed from 2004 to 2011 identified patients with nephrotic range proteinuria and histologically mild IgA nephropathy. Specifically, using the Oxford Classification of IgA Nephropathy, we identified cases that lacked endocapillary proliferation or segmental sclerosis. The cohort consisted of 17 patients, including 10 men and 15 adults. The median serum creatinine was 0.9 mg/dl (range=0.7-3.1), median 24-hour urine protein was 8.0 g/d (3.0-18.0 g), and 14 patients were fully nephrotic, whereas the remaining 3 patients fulfilled two of three criteria for nephrotic syndrome. Biopsies revealed IgA-dominant or codominant deposits accompanied by mesangial proliferation in 14 patients (82.4%). Electron microscopy showed mesangial deposits and extensive foot process effacement (median=90%). Initial treatment consisted of corticosteroids, although many patients required additional agents to maintain remission status. Over a median follow-up of 20 months (2.2-82 months), 14 patients experienced a complete response, and 3 patients showed a partial response, with a median response time of 2 months (0.5-27 months). At least one relapse of nephrotic syndrome occurred in nine patients (53%). All patients exhibited stable or improved renal function over the follow-up period. The findings in this cohort and previous studies suggest that rare cases of mild IgA nephropathy with nephrotic range proteinuria exhibit a clinical presentation, biopsy findings, treatment response, and outcome more typical of IgA nephropathy with superimposed minimal change disease. This study favors the view that such cases represent a dual glomerulopathy.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2014; 9(6). DOI:10.2215/CJN.11951113 · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This retrospective study was designed to estimate the clinical remission (CR) rate of tonsillectomy plus steroid pulse (TSP) therapy in patients with IgA nephropathy. Based on 292 of 302 patients with IgA nephropathy treated at 11 Japanese hospitals, we constructed heat maps of the CR rate at 1 year after TSP with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), grade of hematuria, pathological grade, number of years from diagnosis until TSP, and age at diagnosis on the vertical axis and the daily amount of urinary protein (urinary protein) on the horizontal axis. We compared subgroups usinge Student's t test, the chi-square test with Yates correction, or Fisher's exact probability test. The first heat map of eGFR and urinary protein showed that the CR rate was 71 % (CR vs. non-CR, 96 vs. 40) in patients with eGFR greater than 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 0.3-1.09 g/day of urinary protein. However, the CR rate in patients with more than 1.50 g/day of urinary protein was approximately 30 %. The second heat map of grade of hematuria and urinary protein revealed that the CR rate is 72 % (CR vs. non-CR, 93 vs. 37) in patients with more than 1+ hematuria and 0.3-1.09 g/day of urinary protein; however, it was 28.6 % in patients with no hematuria. The third heat map of pathological grade and urinary protein demonstrated that the highest CR rate was 83 % (CR vs. non-CR, 52 vs. 11) in patients with pathological grade I or II disease and less than 1.09 g/day of urinary protein, as opposed to 22 % (CR vs. non-CR, 9 vs. 32) in patients with pathological grade III or IV disease and more than 2.0 g/day of urinary protein. The fourth heat map of the number of years from diagnosis until TSP and urinary protein revealed that the former did not influence the CR rate in patients with less than 1.09 g/day of urinary protein. However, in patients with more than 1.10 g/day of urinary protein, the CR rate of the subgroup with less than 6 years was 43 % (CR vs. non-CR; 23 vs. 54) compared to 23 % (CR vs. non-CR, 11 vs. 48; P = 0.01) in the subgroup with more than 6 years. The fifth heat map of age at diagnosis and urinary protein showed that the CR rate is approximately 72 % (CR vs. non-CR, 73 vs. 28) in patients older than 19 years at diagnosis with 0.3-1.09 g/day of urinary protein. The daily amount of urinary protein is an important predictor of the CR rate after TSP in IgA nephropathy patients. Heat maps are useful tools for predicting the CR rate associated with TSP.Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 09/2013; 18(4). DOI:10.1007/s10157-013-0867-8 · 1.71 Impact Factor