Beverage consumption, appetie, and energy intake. What did you expect?

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2059, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 03/2012; 95(3):587-93. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.111.025437
Source: PubMed


Beverage consumption is implicated in the overweight/obesity epidemic through the weaker energy compensation response it elicits compared with solid food forms. However, plausible mechanisms are not documented.
This study assessed the cognitive and sensory contributions of differential postingestive responses to energy- and macronutrient-matched liquid (in beverage form) and solid food forms and identifies physiologic processes that may account for them.
Fifty-two healthy adults [mean ± SD age: 24.7 ± 5.5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 26.3 ± 6.3] completed this randomized, 4-arm crossover study. Participants consumed oral liquid and solid preloads that they perceived, through cognitive manipulation, to be liquid or solid in their stomach (ie, oral liquid/perceived gastric liquid, oral liquid/perceived gastric solid, oral solid/perceived gastric liquid, or oral solid/perceived gastric solid). However, all preloads were designed to present a liquid gastric challenge. Appetite, gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, and selected endocrine responses were monitored for the following 4 h; total energy intake was also recorded.
Oral-liquid and perceived gastric-liquid preloads elicited greater postprandial hunger and lower fullness sensations, more rapid gastric-emptying and orocecal transit times, attenuated insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 release, and lower ghrelin suppression than did responses after oral-solid and perceived gastric-solid treatments (all P < 0.05). Faster gastric-emptying times were significantly associated with greater energy intake after consumption of perceived gastric-liquid preloads (P < 0.05). Energy intake was greater on days when perceived gastric-liquid preloads were consumed than when perceived gastric solids were consumed (2311 ± 95 compared with 1897 ± 72 kcal, P = 0.007).
These data document sensory and cognitive effects of food form on ingestive behavior and identify physical and endocrine variables that may account for the low satiety value of beverages. They are consistent with findings that clear, energy-yielding beverages pose a particular risk for positive energy balance. This study was registered at as NCT01070199.

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    • "A strong relationship between obesity and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been found in both epidemiological (Malik & Hu, 2012) and experimental studies, including those using rodents (Kawasaki et al., 2005). One reason that sucrose-containing drinks may be more harmful than sucrosecontaining foods is that less accurate energy compensation occurs with drinks than with foods containing an equivalent amount of sucrose (Cassidy, Considine, & Mattes, 2012; DiMeglio & Mattes, 2000). It has been widely suggested that incomplete satiety following consumption of SSBs is mainly due to the fructose they commonly contain, whether in sucrose or in the high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used predominantly as a sweetener in North America (Lustig, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of the well-documented metabolic and behavioural effects of supplementing rats' diets with access to a sucrose solution, the aim of this study was to compare the impact of 10% sucrose with that of an isoenergetic (10.4%) solution of hydrolysed starch, maltodextrin. This polysaccharide is metabolised at least as rapidly as sucrose and is also very palatable to rats, but does not contain fructose. Each of three experiments contained three groups: one given a sucrose solution, one given a maltodextrin solution and a control group maintained on standard chow and water alone. In Experiment 1 the sucrose and maltodextrin groups were given their supplementary drinks for 2-h each day, while in Experiments 2 and 3 these groups had 24-h access to their supplements. Ad libitum access to maltodextrin produced at least as rapid weight gain as sucrose and in Experiment 2 retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in the two carbohydrate groups than in the control group. Moreover, in Experiment 3 impaired performance on a location recognition task was also found in both carbohydrate groups after only 17 days on the diets. These results indicate that the harmful effects of excess sucrose consumption can also be produced by another rapidly absorbed carbohydrate that does not contain fructose.
    Appetite 02/2014; 77. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.02.011 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    • "Several studies using foods in different forms have found that increasing the viscosity of a food reduces food intake [11], [12] or suppresses appetite [13], [14]. Nonetheless, comparing different food forms, such as a beverage vs a semi-solid or solid food, may not give a true indication of the effect of viscosity on appetite due to cognitive differences in how participants view the test products (e.g., liquid beverages quench thirst whereas semi-solid or solid foods sate hunger) [15]. In addition, the physiological mechanisms that explain these observations have received little attention. "
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e67482. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067482 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Excessive consumption of caloric beverages has been widely viewed as contributing to the obesity epidemic [14,15], although systematic reviews have highlighted the need for better randomised controlled trials, in order to demonstrate a causal effect [16,17]. The main putative mechanism involves reduced satiety and incomplete compensation for calories ingested in liquid form [18]. According to this theory, so-called “liquid calories” are more likely than solid calories to result in passive overconsumption and excess energy intake [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Various recommendations exist for total water intake (TWI), yet it is seldom reported in dietary surveys. Few studies have examined how real-life consumption patterns, including beverage type, variety and timing relate to TWI and energy intake (EI). We analysed weighed dietary records from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of 1724 British adults aged 19–64 years (2000/2001) to investigate beverage consumption patterns over 24 hrs and 7 days and associations with TWI and EI. TWI was calculated from the nutrient composition of each item of food and drink and compared with reference values. Mean TWI was 2.53 L (SD 0.86) for men and 2.03 L (SD 0.71) for women, close to the European Food Safety Authority “adequate Intake” (AI) of 2.5 L and 2 L, respectively. However, for 33% of men and 23% of women TWI was below AI and TWI:EI ratio was <1 g/kcal. Beverages accounted for 75% of TWI. Beverage variety was correlated with TWI (r 0.34) and more weakly with EI (r 0.16). Beverage consumption peaked at 0800 hrs (mainly hot beverages/ milk) and 2100 hrs (mainly alcohol). Total beverage consumption was higher at weekends, especially among men. Overall, beverages supplied 16% of EI (men 17%, women 14%), alcoholic drinks contributed 9% (men) and 5% (women), milk 5-6%, caloric soft drinks 2%, and fruit juice 1%. In multi-variable regression (adjusted for sex, age, body weight, smoking, dieting, activity level and mis-reporting), replacing 100 g of caloric beverages (milk, fruit juice, caloric soft drinks and alcohol) with 100 g non-caloric drinks (diet soft drinks, hot beverages and water) was associated with a reduction in EI of 15 kcal, or 34 kcal if food energy were unchanged. Using within-person data (deviations from 7-day mean) each 100 g change in caloric beverages was associated with 29 kcal change in EI or 35 kcal if food energy were constant. By comparison the calculated energy content of caloric drinks consumed was 47 kcal/100 g. TWI and beverage consumption are closely related, and some individuals appeared to have low TWI. Energy from beverages may be partly compensated. A better understanding of interactions between drinking and eating habits and their impact on water and energy balance would give a firmer basis to dietary recommendations.
    Nutrition Journal 01/2013; 12(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-12-9 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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