The effect of polyethylene glycol recombinant human growth hormone on growth and glucose metabolism in hypophysectomized rats.
ABSTRACT To study the effect of polyethylene glycol recombinant human growth hormone on growth and glucose metabolism in hypophysectomized rats, and compare the effect of treatment between recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and polyethylene glycol rhGH (PEG-rhGH).
Hypophysectomy was performed in juvenile rats to build the animal model of GH deficiency. The hypophysectomized animals were randomly assigned into three groups and treated with saline (negative control, n=20), rhGH (n=20) and PEG-rhGH (n=20). A sham operation was performed to set up the normal control (n=20). Body weight, body length and tail length were recorded every 2days for a 14-day treatment and bone growth was measured at the end of therapy. Glucose infusion rate (GIR) determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity after GH treatment. We also examined plasma glucose and serum insulin levels
Compared with the negative control, the body weight, body length, tail length and bone growth increased significantly in hypophesectomized rats treated by GH (P<0.01). Although the weight gain in the first 10days was higher in the PEG-rhGH group than in the rhGH group (P<0.05), the growth promoting effect was similar between rhGH and PEG-rhGH (P>0.05). Neither rhGH nor PEG-rhGH impaired glucose tolerance of rats after hypophesectomy. Compared with negative controls, according to decreased serum insulin, reduced insulin expression in pancreatic cells and increased GIR in the clamp, both rhGH and PEG-rhGH groups had improved insulin sensitivity within 14 days (P<0.01). However, with prolonged treatment, the GIR in the rhGH-treated rats decreased significantly (P<0.05); while PEG-rhGH did not interfere with GIR, even after a doubled dose (P>0.05).
PEG-rhGH had the same linear growth promoting efficacy as unmodified rhGH. The short-term GH replacement could improve insulin sensitivity in hypophysectomized rats, especially after PEGylation.
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ABSTRACT: Short-term studies of GH replacement in adult hypopituitarism have usually demonstrated beneficial effects on body composition and circulating lipids, with neutral or occasionally adverse effects on glucose tolerance. Fasting hyperinsulinemia has been reported. GH effects on cardiac function have been variable. The effects of long-term GH therapy, taking into account the consequences of increasing age, are not fully known. Thirty-three hypopituitary, initially middle-aged adults were studied over a 7-yr period; 12 patients took GH therapy (mean, 0.7 mg daily) continuously (group A); 11 took GH for only 6-18 months, a minimum of 5 yr previously (group B); and 10 patients never received GH therapy (group C). Other pituitary replacement was maintained. Effects on anthropometry, body composition (by bioimpedance analysis, total body potassium, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), circulating lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations, cardiac 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography, and exercise tolerance were assessed before and after the treatment period. Continuous GH therapy had no significant effect on body weight, but it prevented the increase in waist circumference and waist to hip ratio that occurred in the patients without GH substitution (waist to hip ratio, group A, 0.87+/-0.08 at baseline, 0.85+/-0.09 at 7 yr; group B, 0.89+/-0.11 at baseline, 0.94+/-0.11 at 7 yr; P < 0.005 for GH effect; group C, 0.87+/-0.10 at baseline, 0.92+/-0.10 at 7 yr; P < 0.005 for GH effect). A GH-induced decrease in subscapular skinfold thickness was also observed. By bioimpedance analysis, GH therapy caused an increase in total body water and fat-free mass, and a decrease in the percent body fat. Although changes occurred with time in all groups, no significant additional GH therapy effects were observed on glucose tolerance, insulin concentrations, lipid levels, cardiac dimensions, echocardiographic diastolic function, or exercise tolerance. In conclusion, prolonged GH substitution in middle-aged hypopituitary adults causes a sustained improvement in body composition. Other benefits, e.g. on lipid levels and exercise tolerance, were not apparent at 7 yr when comparisons were made with GH-untreated hypopituitary controls. Potentially adverse effects on glucose tolerance and insulinemia did not develop with prolonged GH therapy.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 10/2000; 85(10):3762-9. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of GH replacement therapy on energy metabolism are still uncertain, and long-term benefits of increased muscle mass are thought to outweigh short-term negative metabolic effects. This study was designed to address this issue by examining both short-term (1 wk) and long-term (6 months) effects of a low-dose (9.6 micro g/kg body weight.d) GH replacement therapy or placebo on whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism (oral glucose tolerance test and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with indirect calorimetry and infusion of 3-[(3)H]glucose) and on muscle composition and muscle enzymes/metabolites, as determined from biopsies obtained at the end of the clamp in 19 GH-deficient adult subjects. GH therapy resulted in impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake at 1 wk (-52%; P = 0.008) and 6 months (-39%; P = 0.008), which correlated with deterioration of glucose tolerance (r = -0.481; P = 0.003). The decrease in glucose uptake was associated with an increase in lipid oxidation at 1 wk (60%; P = 0.008) and 6 months (60%; P = 0.008) and a concomitant decrease in glucose oxidation. The deterioration of glucose metabolism during GH therapy also correlated with the enhanced rate of lipid oxidation (r = -0.508; P = 0.0002). In addition, there was a shift toward more glycolytic type II fibers during GH therapy. In conclusion, replacement therapy with a low-dose GH in GH-deficient adult subjects is associated with a sustained deterioration of glucose metabolism as a consequence of the lipolytic effect of GH, resulting in enhanced oxidation of lipid substrates. Also, a shift toward more insulin-resistant type II X fibers is seen in muscle. Glucose metabolism should be carefully monitored during long-term GH replacement therapy.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 05/2003; 88(4):1455-63. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a multifactorial disorder in which pituitary dysfunction associated with pituitary adenomas or their treatment plays a major role. The introduction of recombinant growth hormone (GH) for the treatment of GHD has opened up new treatment avenues but has also raised concerns about possible untoward long-term metabolic effects of GH, such as the potential effect of GH on insulin sensitivity and a deterioration in glucose tolerance. Research has shown that GH induces insulin resistance by the stimulation of lipolysis and a concomitant switch from oxidation of glucose to oxidation of lipids, during both acute and chronic treatment. However, although this is a consistent effect of GH therapy, it does not mean per se that it leads to abnormal glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. This article discusses this and other potential long-term metabolic effects of GH, and raises a number of questions to be addressed by future research.Hormone Research 02/2005; 64 Suppl 3:45-50. · 2.48 Impact Factor