[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the long-term natural history and effects of laser photocoagulation treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy.
Follow-up study of the 214 surviving patients enrolled originally at the Johns Hopkins Clinical Center for the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), which was a clinical trial designed to evaluate the role of laser photocoagulation and aspirin treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy.
Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study patients enrolled in the Johns Hopkins Clinical Center had complete eye examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity measurements, fundus photographs, and medical questionnaires throughout the 7-year study. They had the same examinations at the final long-term follow-up visit at the National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 13 to 19.5 years after the initial laser photocoagulation (median, 16.7 years).
The major outcomes were mortality and the rates of moderate and severe vision loss. The secondary outcomes were progression of diabetic retinopathy and need for other eye surgery.
Of the 214 patients who were alive at the end of the original ETDRS in 1989, 130 (61%) were deceased at the time of the re-examination. Of the 84 who were alive, 71 (85%) were examined at their long-term follow-up visit at the National Institutes of Health. At the long-term follow-up examination, 42% had visual acuity of 20/20 or better, and 84% had visual acuity of 20/40 or better in the better eye. Compared with baseline, 20% of patients had moderate vision loss (loss of 3 lines or more vision) in the better eye at follow-up. Only one patient had visual acuity of 20/200 bilaterally. He had visual acuity loss secondary to age-related macular degeneration. No patient had severe vision loss (worse than 5/200). All the initially untreated eyes of patients who had severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy or worse by the time of the ETDRS closeout visit of the original study received scatter photocoagulation treatment. Focal photocoagulation was performed in 43% bilaterally and 22% unilaterally. Cataract surgery was performed in 31% of the patients, vitrectomy in 17%, and glaucoma surgery in one patient.
As previously reported, the mortality rate of patients with diabetic retinopathy is much higher than that of the general population. For those who survived, aggressive follow-up, with treatment when indicated, seems to be associated with maintenance of good long-term visual acuity for most patients. The need for laser scatter photocoagulation with long-term follow-up seems to be high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA) and bevacizumab (IVB) as adjunctive treatments to panretinal photocoagulation (PRP).
In 91 eyes of 76 patients (clinically significant macular oedema (CSME) 46 eyes; no CSME 45 eyes) with severe diabetic retinopathy, PRP with IVTA (IVTA group, 30 eyes) or PRP with IVB (IVB group, 31 eyes) or PRP only (PRP group, 30 eyes) was performed. Primary outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) at 1 and 3 months. Secondary outcome measures were proportion of visual gain or loss, and decreased or increased CMT.
There was significant worsening in BCVA from 0.26 to 0.29 at 1 and 3 months (p=0.031) in the PRP group. In eyes with CSME, there was significant improvement of BCVA from 0.33 to 0.27 at 1 and 3 months (p=0.012) in IVTA group. In eyes without CSME, PRP group showed significant worsening in BCVA from 0.18 to 0.26 at 1 month (p=0.008) and 0.27 at 3 months (p=0.005). There was significant improvement in CMT in IVTA and IVB groups: in eyes without CSME, there was significant increase in CMT from 209.75 to 259.00 microm at 1 month (p=0.023) and to 276.14 microm at 3 months (p=0.011) in the PRP group; in eyes with CSME, the proportion of eyes with visual gain and decreased CMT was significantly higher in the IVTA group (75% and 100%, respectively) than in the IVB group (37.5% and 62.5%, respectively).
IVTA and IVB may be effective adjunctive treatments to PRP, minimising the risk of PRP-induced macular oedema and visual loss.
The British journal of ophthalmology 07/2010; 94(7):858-63. DOI:10.1136/bjo.2009.168997 · 2.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 55-year-old man with a 20-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to a retina specialist after noticing a few black floaters in his left eye for the preceding week. His glycated hemoglobin level was 8.2%. He had no history of laser treatment for proliferative diabetic retinopathy in either eye. Ophthalmoscopic examination of the right eye showed venous beading, intraretinal microvascular abnormalities, and no macular edema. Ophthalmoscopic examination of the left eye showed extensive neovascularization of the disk, consisting of new vessels extending beyond the optic disk in all directions (Fig. 1A). The retina specialist diagnosed severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy in the right eye and high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the left eye, with no macular edema in either eye. The specialist recommended prompt initiation of panretinal photocoagulation in the left eye.
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2011; 365(16):1520-6. DOI:10.1056/NEJMct0908432 · 55.87 Impact Factor
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