Sleep is characterized by episodes of immobility interrupted by periods of voluntary and involuntary movement. Increased mobility in bed can be a sign of disrupted sleep that may reduce sleep quality. This paper describes a method for classification of the type of movement in bed using load cells installed at the corners of a bed. The approach is based on Gaussian Mixture Models using a time-domain feature representation. The movement classification system is evaluated on data collected in the laboratory, and it classified correctly 84.6% of movements. The unobtrusive aspect of this approach is particularly valuable for longer-term home monitoring against a standard clinical setting.
"In , authors proposed a method of detection of movements made in bed. The authors of  resorted to the usage of load cells connected to the four corners of the bed and Gaussian Mixture Model in time domain to design the required classification system. The method was used on laboratory data and almost 84.6% results were found to be accurate. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a simple yet a novel technique to recognize leg postures in Indian classical dance by making use of a Kinect sensor. The sensor device has the ability to track the skeleton of the subject with the help of a visible camera and an IR camera coupled to an IR laser and diffraction grating. Twenty five leg postures from ‘Odissi’, an Indian Classical dance have been used for the evaluation our proposed algorithm. This methodology extracts eight features, which in turn can be categorized under three levels of symmetry viz. the vertical symmetry, the horizontal symmetry and the angular symmetry. Finally a similarity function is devised which is the basis of the leg posture recognition technique. This method provides better human computer interaction and also aims at spreading the dance form for e-learning purpose. The proposed algorithm can be applied for any dance form for leg posture recognition purposes. It gives 86.75% accuracy with five subjects.
International Conference on Human Computer Interactions; 08/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor quality of sleep increases the risk of many adverse health outcomes. Some measures of sleep, such as sleep efficiency or sleep duration, are calculated from periods of time when a patient is asleep and awake. The current method for assessing sleep and wakefulness is based on polysomnography, an expensive and inconvenient method of measuring sleep in a clinical setting. In this paper, we suggest an alternative method of detecting periods of sleep and wake that can be obtained unobtrusively in a patient's own home by placing load cells under the supports of their bed. Specifically, we use a support vector machine to classify periods of sleep and wake in a cohort of patients admitted to a sleep lab. The inputs to the classifier are subject demographic information, a statistical characterization of the load cell derived signals, and several sleep parameters estimated from the load cell data that are related to movement and respiration. Our proposed classifier achieves an average sensitivity of 0.808 and specificity of 0.812 with 90% confidence intervals of (0.790, 0.821) and (0.798, 0.826), respectively, when compared to the "gold-standard" sleep/wake annotations during polysomnography. As this performance is over 27 sleep patients with a wide variety of diagnosis levels of sleep disordered breathing, age, body mass index, and other demographics, our method is robust and works well in clinical practice.
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 08/2012; 2012:5254-7. DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347179
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immobility in older patients is a costly problem for both patients and healthcare workers. The Hierarchical Assessment of Balance and Mobility (HABAM) is a clinical tool able to assess immobile patients and predict morbidity, yet could become more reliable and informative through automation. This paper proposes an algorithm to automatically determine which of three enacted HABAM scores (associated with bedridden patients) had been performed by volunteers. A laptop was used to gather pressure data from three mats placed on a standard hospital bed frame while five volunteers performed three enactments each. A system of algorithms was created, consisting of three subsystems. The first subsystem used mattress data to calculate individual sensor sums and eliminate the weight of the mattress. The second subsystem established a baseline pressure reading for each volunteer and used percentage change to identify and distinguish between two enactments. The third subsystem used calculated weight distribution ratios to determine if the data represented the remaining enactment. The system was tested for accuracy by inputting the volunteer data and recording the assessment output (a score per data set). The system identified 13 of 15 sets of volunteer data as expected. Examination of these results indicated that the two sets of data were not misidentified; rather, the volunteers had made mistakes in performance. These results suggest that this system of algorithms is effective in distinguishing between the three HABAM score enactments examined here, and emphasizes the potential for pervasive computing to improve traditional healthcare.
Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 07/2013; 2013:4271-4274. DOI:10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610489
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