Performance optimization of ERP-based BCIs using dynamic stopping.
ABSTRACT Brain-computer interfaces based on event-related potentials face a trade-off between the speed and accuracy of the system, as both depend on the number of iterations. Increasing the number of iterations leads to a higher accuracy but reduces the speed of the system. This trade-off is generally dealt with by finding a fixed number of iterations that give a good result on the calibration data. We show here that this method is sub optimal and increases the performance significantly in only one out of five datasets. Several alternative methods have been described in literature, and we test the generalization of four of them. One method, called rank diff, significantly increased the performance over all datasets. These findings are important, as they show that 1) one should be cautious when reporting the potential performance of a BCI based on post-hoc offline performance curves and 2) simple methods are available that do boost performance.
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ABSTRACT: Moving from well-controlled, brisk artificial stimuli to natural and less-controlled stimuli seems counter-intuitive for event-related potential (ERP) studies. As natural stimuli typically contain a richer internal structure, they might introduce higher levels of variance and jitter in the ERP responses. Both characteristics are unfavorable for a good single-trial classification of ERPs in the context of a multi-class brain-computer interface (BCI) system, where the class-discriminant information between target stimuli and non-target stimuli must be maximized. For the application in an auditory BCI system, however, the transition from simple artificial tones to natural syllables can be useful despite the variance introduced. In the presented study, healthy users (N = 9) participated in an offline auditory nine-class BCI experiment with artificial and natural stimuli. It is shown that the use of syllables as natural stimuli does not only improve the users' ergonomic ratings; also the classification performance is increased. Moreover, natural stimuli obtain a better balance in multi-class decisions, such that the number of systematic confusions between the nine classes is reduced. Hopefully, our findings may contribute to make auditory BCI paradigms more user friendly and applicable for patients.Journal of Neural Engineering 07/2012; 9(4):045003. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been widely adopted to classify event-related potential (ERP) in brain-computer interface (BCI). Good classification performance of the ERP-based BCI usually requires sufficient data recordings for effective training of the LDA classifier, and hence a long system calibration time which however may depress the system practicability and cause the users resistance to the BCI system. In this study, we introduce a spatial-temporal discriminant analysis (STDA) to ERP classification. As a multiway extension of the LDA, the STDA method tries to maximize the discriminant information between target and nontarget classes through finding two projection matrices from spatial and temporal dimensions collaboratively, which reduces effectively the feature dimensionality in the discriminant analysis, and hence decreases significantly the number of required training samples. The proposed STDA method was validated with dataset II of the BCI Competition III and dataset recorded from our own experiments, and compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms for ERP classification. Online experiments were additionally implemented for the validation. The superior classification performance in using few training samples shows that the STDA is effective to reduce the system calibration time and improve the classification accuracy, thereby enhancing the practicability of ERP-based BCI.IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering: a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 03/2013; 21(2):233-43. · 2.42 Impact Factor