Late replication domains in polytene and non-polytene cells of Drosophila melanogaster.
ABSTRACT In D. melanogaster polytene chromosomes, intercalary heterochromatin (IH) appears as large dense bands scattered in euchromatin and comprises clusters of repressed genes. IH displays distinctly low gene density, indicative of their particular regulation. Genes embedded in IH replicate late in the S phase and become underreplicated. We asked whether localization and organization of these late-replicating domains is conserved in a distinct cell type. Using published comprehensive genome-wide chromatin annotation datasets (modENCODE and others), we compared IH organization in salivary gland cells and in a Kc cell line. We first established the borders of 60 IH regions on a molecular map, these regions containing underreplicated material and encompassing ∼12% of Drosophila genome. We showed that in Kc cells repressed chromatin constituted 97% of the sequences that corresponded to IH bands. This chromatin is depleted for ORC-2 binding and largely replicates late. Differences in replication timing between the cell types analyzed are local and affect only sub-regions but never whole IH bands. As a rule such differentially replicating sub-regions display open chromatin organization, which apparently results from cell-type specific gene expression of underlying genes. We conclude that repressed chromatin organization of IH is generally conserved in polytene and non-polytene cells. Yet, IH domains do not function as transcription- and replication-regulatory units, because differences in transcription and replication between cell types are not domain-wide, rather they are restricted to small "islands" embedded in these domains. IH regions can thus be defined as a special class of domains with low gene density, which have narrow temporal expression patterns, and so displaying relatively conserved organization.
Article: Drosophila double parked: a conserved, essential replication protein that colocalizes with the origin recognition complex and links DNA replication with mitosis and the down-regulation of S phase transcripts.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We identified a Drosophila gene, double parked (dup), that is essential for DNA replication and belongs to a new family of replication proteins conserved from Schizosaccharomyces pombe to humans. Strong mutations in dup cause embryonic lethality, preceded by a failure to undergo S phase during the postblastoderm divisions. dup is required also for DNA replication in the adult ovary, establishing that dup is needed for DNA replication at multiple stages of development. Strikingly, DUP protein colocalizes with the origin recognition complex to specific sites in the ovarian follicle cells. This suggests that DUP plays a direct role in DNA replication. The dup transcript is cell cycle regulated and is under the control of E2F and Cyclin E. Interestingly, dup mutant embryos fail both to downregulate S phase genes and to engage a checkpoint preventing mitosis until completion of S phase. This could be either because these events depend on progression of S phase beyond the point blocked in the dup mutants or because DUP is needed directly for these feedback mechanisms.Genes & Development 08/2000; 14(14):1765-76. · 11.66 Impact Factor
Advances in genetics 02/1999; 39:1-589. · 3.39 Impact Factor
Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2002; 45(1):205-17. · 1.93 Impact Factor