AU-Rich Element-Mediated mRNA Decay Can Occur Independently of the miRNA Machinery in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Drosophila S2-Cells
ABSTRACT AU-rich elements (AREs) are regulatory sequences located in the 3' untranslated region of many short-lived mRNAs. AREs are recognized by ARE-binding proteins and cause rapid mRNA degradation. Recent reports claimed that the function of AREs may be--at least in part--relayed through the miRNA pathway. We have revisited this hypothesis using dicer knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts and cultured Drosophila cells. In contrast to the published results, we find no evidence for a general requirement of the miRNA pathway in the function of AREs. Endogenous ier3 mRNA, which is known to contain a functional ARE, was degraded rapidly at indistinguishable rates in wild type and dicer knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts. In cultured Drosophila cells, both ARE-containing GFP reporter mRNAs and the endogenous cecA1 mRNA were resistant to depletion of the mi/siRNA factors dcr-1, dcr-2, ago1 and ago2. Furthermore, the Drosophila miRNA originally proposed to recognize AU-rich elements, miR-289, is not detectably expressed in flies or cultured S2 cells. Even our attempts to overexpress this miRNA from its genomic hairpin sequence failed. Thus, this sequence cannot serve as link between the miRNA and the AU-rich element mediated silencing pathways. Taken together, our studies in mammalian and Drosophila cells strongly argue that AREs can function independently of miRNAs.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Georg Stoecklin, Aug 21, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Matthias Gaestel[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Extracellular-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases are activated in innate (and adaptive) immunity and signal via different routes to alter the stability and translation of various cytokine mRNAs, enabling immune cells to respond promptly. This regulation involves mRNA elements, such as AU-rich motifs, and mRNA-binding proteins, such as tristetraprolin (TTP), HuR, and hnRNPK-homology (KH) type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP). Signal-dependent phosphorylation of mRNA-binding proteins often alters their subcellular localization or RNA-binding affinity. Furthermore, it could lead to an altered interaction with other mRNA-binding proteins and altered scaffolding properties for mRNA-modifying enzymes, such as deadenylases, polyadenylases, decapping enzymes, poly(A) binding proteins, exo- or endonucleases, and proteins of the exosome machinery. In many cases, this results in unstable mRNAs being stabilized, with their translational arrest being released and cytokine production being stimulated. Hence, components of these mechanisms are potential targets for the modulation of the inflammatory response.Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 04/2014; 34(4):220-32. DOI:10.1089/jir.2013.0146 · 3.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent experimental results on the effect of miRNA on the decay of its target mRNA have been analyzed against a previously hypothesized single molecule degradation pathway. According to that hypothesis, the silencing complex (miRISC) first interacts with its target mRNA and then recruits the protein complexes associated with NOT1 and PAN3 to trigger deadenylation (and subsequent degradation) of the target mRNA. Our analysis of the experimental decay patterns allowed us to refine the structure of the degradation pathways at the single molecule level. Surprisingly, we found that if the previously hypothesized network was correct, only about 7% of the target mRNA would be regulated by the miRNA mechanism, which is inconsistent with the available knowledge. Based on systematic data analysis, we propose the alternative hypothesis that NOT1 interacts with miRISC before binding to the target mRNA. Moreover, we show that when miRISC binds alone to the target mRNA, the mRNA is degraded more slowly, probably through a deadenylation-independent pathway. The new biochemical pathway we propose both fits the data and paves the way for new experimental work to identify new interactions.
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ABSTRACT: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of ∼22nt non-coding RNAs that potentially regulate over 60% of human protein-coding genes. miRNA activity is highly specific, differing between cell types, developmental stages and environmental conditions, so the identification of active miRNAs in a given sample is of great interest. Here we present a novel computational approach for analyzing both mRNA sequence and gene expression data, called MixMir. Our method corrects for 3' UTR background sequence similarity between transcripts, which is known to correlate with mRNA transcript abundance. We demonstrate that after accounting for kmer sequence similarities in 3' UTRs, a statistical linear model based on motif presence/absence can effectively discover active miRNAs in a sample. MixMir utilizes fast software implementations for solving mixed linear models, which are widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Essentially we use 3' UTR sequence similarity in place of population cryptic relatedness in the GWAS problem. Compared to similar methods such as miReduce, Sylamer and cWords, we found that MixMir performed better at discovering true miRNA motifs in three mouse Dicer-knockout experiments from different tissues, two of which were collected by our group. We confirmed these results on protein and mRNA expression data obtained from miRNA transfection experiments in human cell lines. MixMir can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/ldiao/MixMir.Nucleic Acids Research 07/2014; 42(17). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku672 · 8.81 Impact Factor