[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the well-established antitumor activity of CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T lymphocytes (iNKT), their use for cancer therapy has remained challenging. This appears to be due to their strong but short-lived activation followed by long-term anergy after a single administration of the CD1d agonist ligand alpha-galactosylceramide (αGC). As a promising alternative, we obtained sustained mouse iNKT cell responses associated with prolonged antitumor effects through repeated administrations of tumor-targeted recombinant sCD1d-antitumor scFv fusion proteins loaded with αGC. Here, we demonstrate that CD1d fusion proteins bound to tumor cells via the antibody fragment specific for a tumor-associated antigen, efficiently activate human iNKT cell lines leading to potent tumor cell lysis. The importance of CD1d tumor targeting was confirmed in tumor-bearing mice in which only the specific tumor-targeted CD1d fusion protein resulted in tumor inhibition of well-established aggressive tumor grafts. The therapeutic efficacy correlated with the repeated activation of iNKT and natural killer cells marked by their release of TH1 cytokines, despite the up-regulation of the co-inhibitory receptor PD-1. Our results demonstrate the superiority of providing the superagonist αGC loaded on recombinant CD1d proteins and support the use of αGC/sCD1d-antitumor fusion proteins to secure a sustained human and mouse iNKT cell activation, while targeting their cytotoxic activity and cytokine release to the tumor site.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 12/2012; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells are subsets of lymphocytes that share some phenotypical and functional similarities. Both cell types can rapidly respond to the presence of tumour cells and participate in antitumour immune responses. This has prompted interest in the development of innovative cancer therapies that are based on the manipulation of NK and NKT cells. Recent studies have highlighted how the immune reactivity of NK and NKT cells is shaped by the environment in which they develop. The rational use of these cells in cancer immunotherapies awaits a better understanding of their effector functions, migratory patterns and survival properties in humans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer in the western world. Over the last few decades little improvement has been made to increase the relatively low 5-year survival rate. This calls for novel and improved therapies. Here, we describe opportunities in immunotherapy for head and neck cancer patients and hurdles yet to be overcome. Viruses are involved in a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cases. The incidence of HPV-related head and neck cancer is increasing and is a distinctly different disease from other head and neck carcinomas. Virus-induced tumors express viral antigens that are good targets for immunotherapeutic treatment options. The type of immunotherapeutic treatment, either active or passive, should be selected depending on the HPV status of the tumor and the immune status of the patient.
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