A Placebo- and Midazolam-Controlled Phase I Single Ascending-Dose Study Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Remimazolam (CNS 7056): Part II. Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation
ABSTRACT A new benzodiazepine, remimazolam, which is rapidly metabolized by tissue esterases to an inactive metabolite, has been developed to permit a fast onset, a short, predictable duration of sedative action, and a more rapid recovery profile than currently available drugs. We report on modeling of the data and simulations of dosage regimens for future study.
A phase I, single-center, double-blind, placebo and active controlled, randomized, single-dose escalation study was conducted. Fifty-four healthy subjects in 9 groups received a single 1-minute IV infusion of remimazolam (0.01-0.3 mg/kg). There were 18 control subjects taking midazolam and 9 placebos. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of the data was undertaken and the parameters obtained were used for Monte-Carlo simulations of alternative dosing regimens.
A 4-compartment mammillary pharmacokinetic model of midazolam and a physiologically based recirculation model of remimazolam were fitted to the observed plasma levels. The recirculation model of remimazolam explained the observed high venous, compared with arterial, concentrations at later time points. The 2 models were used to simulate the arterial concentrations required for the pharmacodynamic models of sedation (Bispectral Index and Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation [MOAA/S]) and gave population mean pharmacodynamic parameters as follows: Bispectral Index-IC(50): 0.26, 0.07 μg/mL; γ: 1.6, 8.6; k(e0): 0.14, 0.053 min(-1); I(MAX): 39, 19, and MOAA/S-IC(50): 0.4, 0.08 μg/mL; γ: 1.4, 3.4; k(e0): 0.25, 0.050 min(-1) for remimazolam and midazolam, respectively. Simulations to obtain >70% of the population with MOAA/S scores of 2 to 4 were developed. This criterion was achieved (95% confidence intervals: 67%-74%) with a 6-mg initial loading dose of remimazolam followed by 3-mg maintenance doses at >2-minute intervals. Recovery to a MOAA/S score of 5 is predicted to be within 16 minutes for 89% (95% confidence intervals: 87%-91%) of the treated population after this loading/maintenance dose regimen.
Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models developed for remimazolam and midazolam fitted the observed data well. Simulations based on these models show that remimazolam delivers extremely rapid sedation, with maximal effect being reached within 3 minutes of the start of treatment. This property will enable maintenance doses to be given more accurately than with slower-acting drugs. No covariate effects considered to be clinically relevant were observed, suggesting that dosing by body weight may offer no advantage over fixed doses in terms of consistency of exposure to remimazolam within the weight range studied (65-90 kg).
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- "Remimazolam undergoes dose-independent ester hydrolysis. In the clinical doses, the enzymes are unlikely to be saturated and as a result, there is no accumulation reported. In other words, the rate of reaction continues to follow first order kinetics and is unlikely to change to zero order in the recommended doses. "
ABSTRACT: Remimazolam (CNS 7056) is a new drug innovation in anesthesia. It combines the properties of two unique drugs already established in anesthesia - Midazolam and remifentanil. It acts on GABA receptors like midazolam and has organ-independent metabolism like remifentanil. It is likely to be the sedative of the future, as preliminary phase II trials have shown minimal residual effects on prolonged infusions. It has potential to be used as a sedative in ICU and as a novel agent for procedural sedation. Unlike most rapidly acting intravenous sedatives available presently, the propensity to cause apnea is very low. Availability of a specific antagonist (flumazenil) adds to its safety even in cases of overdose. The present review discusses remimazolam's potential as a new drug in anesthesia along with the presently available literary evidence.07/2014; 8(3):388-91. DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.136627
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ABSTRACT: A new benzodiazepine, remimazolam, metabolized by tissue esterases to an inactive compound, CNS 7054, has been developed to permit a fast onset, a short and more predictable duration of sedative action, and a more rapid recovery profile than with currently available benzodiazepines. We report on the safety and efficacy of the first human study. A phase I, single-center, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, randomized, single-dose escalation study was conducted. Up to 10 cohorts of healthy subjects were scheduled to receive a single 1-minute IV infusion of remimazolam, midazolam, or placebo. In the 10 possible cohorts, remimazolam doses were from 0.01 to 0.35 mg/kg. In cohorts 1 to 3, 6 subjects received remimazolam and 1 placebo. From cohort 4 onward, an additional 3 subjects in each cohort received midazolam (0.075 mg/kg). Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were measured. A stop criterion of loss of consciousness for >5 minutes in >50% of subjects was predefined. The stop criterion was reached in cohort 9 (0.30 mg/kg remimazolam) so that 81 subjects were enrolled. Remimazolam was well tolerated in all dose cohorts, and no serious adverse events (AEs) were reported. Three AEs of mild (Spo(2) 85%-88%) hemoglobin desaturation (2 in the remimazolam groups and 1 in the midazolam group) resolved spontaneously, and 1 AE of moderate hemoglobin desaturation (Spo(2) 75%) resolved with a chin lift in the highest remimazolam dose group. No supplemental oxygen or manual ventilation was required. Vital signs remained stable throughout, although there was an increase in heart rate 2 minutes postdose for both remimazolam and midazolam. There were no reports of hypo- or hypertension. The pharmacokinetic behavior of remimazolam was linear and its systemic clearance approximately 3 times that of midazolam. Clearance was essentially independent of body weight. A rapid onset and dose-dependent sedation was observed after administration of remimazolam at 0.05 mg/kg and higher. Remimazolam (0.075 to 0.20 mg/kg) induced peak sedation levels similar to or higher than those achieved with midazolam (0.075 mg/kg). Median recovery times after approximately equieffective doses of remimazolam (0.10 and 0.15 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.075 mg/kg) were 10 and 40 minutes, respectively. Remimazolam provided sedation with rapid onset and offset, and was well tolerated. There was no supplemental oxygen or ventilation required. On the basis of these data, further studies on the potential utility of remimazolam for sedation/anesthesia are warranted.Anesthesia and analgesia 12/2011; 115(2):274-83. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e31823f0c28 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The accompanying articles in this issue of the journal's special collection describe attempts to improve on the dynamics of distribution and reduce side effects of analogs of etomidate and benzodiazepines. Both classes of drugs have their principal sites of action on γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, although at very different binding sites and by different mechanisms of action. Herein, we review the structure of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and describe the location of the 2 likely binding sites. In addition, we describe how these drugs can interact with the nervous system at a systems level. We leave it to other reviewers to discuss whether these new drugs offer true clinical improvements.Anesthesia and analgesia 02/2012; 115(2):270-3. DOI:10.1213/ANE.0b013e31824a0b3c · 3.42 Impact Factor