Molecular characterization of an anthocyanin-related glutathione S-transferase gene in cyclamen

Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292, Japan.
Journal of plant physiology (Impact Factor: 2.56). 04/2012; 169(6):636-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.12.011
Source: PubMed


Anthocyanins are a subclass of flavonoids and are a major contributor to flower colors ranging from red to blue and purple. Previous studies in model and ornamental plants indicate a member of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family is involved in vacuolar accumulation of anthocyanins. In order to identify the anthocyanin-related GST in cyclamen, degenerate PCR was performed using total RNA from immature young petals. Four candidates of GSTs (CkmGST1 to CkmGST4) were isolated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CkmGST3 was closely related to PhAN9, an anthocyanin-related GST of petunia, and this clade was clustered with other known anthocyanin-related GSTs. Expression analysis at different developmental stages of petals revealed that CkmGST3 was strongly expressed in paler pigmented petals than in fully pigmented petals, in contrast to the constitutive expression of the other three candidates during petal development. This expression pattern of CkmGST3 was correlated with those of other anthocyanin biosynthetic genes such as CkmF3'5'H and CkmDFR2. Molecular complementation of Arabidopsis tt19, a knockout mutant of an anthocyanin-related GST gene, demonstrated that CkmGST3 could complement the anthocyanin-less phenotype of tt19. Transgenic plants that expressed the other three CkmGSTs did not show anthocyanin accumulation. These results indicate CkmGST3 functions in anthocyanin accumulation in cyclamen.

24 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ion beams have been used as a mutagen to improve the efficiency of plant mutation breeding. Mutation breeding is sometimes perceived as a random process. In this review, we describe our recent progress in developing a more efficient mutagenesis technique using ion beam irradiation combined with sucrose pretreatment or subsequent re-irradiation. To shorten the time required for breeding new cultivars of cyclamen, we identified anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and examined the effectiveness of PCR screening of irradiated deletion-mutant candidates at early growth stages. We believe this research is a step toward more efficient and controlled mutation breeding using ion beams.
    Plant Biotechnology 01/2012; 29(3):193-200. DOI:10.5511/plantbiotechnology.12.0106a · 0.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are representative plant secondary products. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, at least 54 flavonoid molecules (35 flavonols, 11 anthocyanins and 8 proanthocyanidins) are found. Scaffold structures of flavonoids in Arabidopsis are relatively simple. These include kaempferol, quercetin and isorhamnetin for flavonols, cyanidin for anthocyanins and epicatechin for proanthocyanidins. The chemical diversity of flavonoids increases enormously by tailoring reactions which modify these scaffolds, including glycosylation, methylation and acylation. Genes responsible for the formation of flavonoid aglycone structures and their subsequent modification reactions have been extensively characterized by functional genomic efforts - mostly the integration of transcriptomics and metabolic profiling followed by reverse genetic experimentation. This review describes the state-of-art of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis regarding both structural and genetic diversity, focusing on the genes encoding enzymes for the biosynthetic reactions and vacuole translocation.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 02/2013; 72:21-34. DOI:10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.02.001 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many plant leaves appear red in the autumn, and many papers have focused on the environmental factors and role of anthocyanin in this process. However few papers have examined the substances that are induced during this process. We hypothesised that excess sugar accumulation directly induces anthocyanin accumulation under autumn conditions. Using two methods (restricting phloem movement and exogenous sucrose feeding), we found that both surplus photosynthate and exogenous sucrose could induce anthocyanin biosynthesis, corresponding to up-regulation of several enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase) and in transport (glutathione S-transferase). Our results suggest that excess carbohydrate may be the proximate trigger for induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in autumn, but only when carbohydrates are accumulated for storage.
    Plant Biology 04/2013; 15(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1438-8677.2012.00721.x · 2.63 Impact Factor
Show more

Similar Publications