Maternal control of seed size by EOD3/CYP78A6 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
ABSTRACT Seed size in higher plants is coordinately determined by the growth of the embryo, endosperm and maternal tissue, but relatively little is known about the genetic and molecular mechanisms that set final seed size. We have previously demonstrated that Arabidopsis DA1 acts maternally to control seed size, with the da1-1 mutant producing larger seeds than the wild type. Through an activation tagging screen for modifiers of da1-1, we have identified an enhancer of da1-1 (eod3-1D) in seed size. EOD3 encodes the Arabidopsis cytochrome P450/CYP78A6 and is expressed in most plant organs. Overexpression of EOD3 dramatically increases the seed size of wild-type plants, whereas eod3-ko loss-of-function mutants form small seeds. The disruption of CYP78A9, the most closely related family member, synergistically enhances the seed size phenotype of eod3-ko mutants, indicating that EOD3 functions redundantly with CYP78A9 to affect seed growth. Reciprocal cross experiments show that EOD3 acts maternally to promote seed growth. eod3-ko cyp78a9-ko double mutants have smaller cells in the maternal integuments of developing seeds, whereas eod3-1D forms more and larger cells in the integuments. Genetic analyses suggest that EOD3 functions independently of maternal factors DA1 and TTG2 to influence seed growth. Collectively, our findings identify EOD3 as a factor of seed size control, and give insight into how plants control their seed size.
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ABSTRACT: Seed development in plants involves the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissue. Several genes have been identified that influence seed size by acting maternally, such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2, APETALA2, and DA1. However, given the lack of gain-of-function effects of these genes on seed size, it is unclear whether their activity levels are limiting in WT plants and whether they could thus be used to regulate seed size in development or evolution. Also, whether the altered seed sizes reflect local gene activity or global physiological changes is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the cytochrome P450 KLUH (KLU) regulates seed size. KLU acts locally in developing flowers to promote seed growth, and its activity level is limiting for seed growth in WT. KLU is expressed in the inner integument of developing ovules, where it non-cell autonomously stimulates cell proliferation, thus determining the growth potential of the seed coat and seed. A KLU-induced increase in seed size leads to larger seedlings and higher relative oil content of the seeds. Genetic analyses indicate that KLU acts independently of other tested maternal factors that influence integument cell proliferation. Thus, the level of KLU-dependent growth factor signaling determines size in ovules and seeds, suggesting this pathway as a target for crop improvement.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2009; 106(47):20115-20. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We use Arabidopsis thaliana as a model to investigate coordination of cell proliferation and cell elongation in the three components that develop side by side in the seed. Two of these, the embryo and its nurturing annex, the endosperm, are placed under zygotic control and develop within the seed integument placed under maternal control. We show that integument cell proliferation and endosperm growth are largely independent from each other. By contrast, prevention of cell elongation in the integument by the mutation transparent testa glabra2 (ttg2) restricts endosperm and seed growth. Conversely, endosperm growth controlled by the HAIKU (IKU) genetic pathway modulates integument cell elongation. Combinations of TTG2 defective seed integument with reduction of endosperm size by iku mutations identify integument cell elongation and endosperm growth as the primary regulators of seed size. Our results strongly suggest that a cross talk between maternal and zygotic controls represents the primary regulator of the coordinated control of seed size in Arabidopsis.The Plant Cell 02/2005; 17(1):52-60. · 9.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Control of seed size involves complex interactions among the zygotic embryo and endosperm, the maternally derived seed coat, and the parent plant. Here we describe a mutant in Arabidopsis, megaintegumenta (mnt), in which seed size and weight are dramatically increased. One factor in this is extra cell division in the integuments surrounding mnt mutant ovules, leading to the formation of enlarged seed coats. Unusually for integument mutants, mnt does not impair female fertility. The mnt lesion also has pleiotropic effects on vegetative and floral development, causing extra cell division and expansion in many organs. mnt was identified as a mutant allele of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 (ARF2), a member of a family of transcription factors that mediate gene expression in response to auxin. The mutant phenotype and gene expression studies described here provide evidence that MNT/ARF2 is a repressor of cell division and organ growth. The mutant phenotype also illustrates the importance of growth of the ovule before fertilization in determining final size of the seed.Development 02/2006; 133(2):251-61. · 6.21 Impact Factor