Regulation of DNA replication initiation is essential for the faithful inheritance of genetic information. Replication initiation is a multi-step process involving many factors including ORC, Cdt1p, Mcm2-7p and other proteins that bind to replication origins to form a pre-replicative complex (pre-RC). As a prerequisite for pre-RC assembly, Cdt1p and the Mcm2-7p heterohexameric complex accumulate in the nucleus in G1 phase in an interdependent manner in budding yeast. However, the nature of this interdependence is not clear, nor is it known whether Cdt1p is required for the assembly of the MCM complex. In this study, we provide the first evidence that Cdt1p, through its interaction with Mcm6p with the C-terminal regions of the two proteins, is crucial for the formation of the MCM complex in both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm. We demonstrate that disruption of the interaction between Cdt1p and Mcm6p prevents the formation of the MCM complex, excludes Mcm2-7p from the nucleus, and inhibits pre-RC assembly and DNA replication. Our findings suggest a function for Cdt1p in promoting the assembly of the MCM complex and maintaining its integrity by interacting with Mcm6p.
"). In vivo analysis of an Mcm6-5A mutant (E945A, D947A, L951A, E953A, and Y954A) and Cdt1-5A mutant (R486A, R488A, R490A, R501A, and K512A) established that the Mcm6-Cdt1 interaction is essential for the nuclear import of Cdt1/MCM2-7 (Wu et al., 2012), and in consequence Cdt1-5A and Cdt1-3A (R486A, L487A, and R490A) both block chromatin binding of MCM2-7 (Liu et al., 2012). However, it is not known if these mutants can function in pre-RC assembly. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes, the loading of the replicative helicase MCM2-7 onto DNA requires the combined activities of ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1. These proteins load MCM2-7 in an unknown way into a double hexamer around DNA. Here we show that MCM2-7 recruitment by ORC/Cdc6 is blocked by an autoinhibitory domain in the C terminus of Mcm6. Interestingly, Cdt1 can overcome this inhibitory activity, and consequently the Cdt1-MCM2-7 complex activates ORC/Cdc6 ATP-hydrolysis to promote helicase loading. While Cdc6 ATPase activity is known to facilitate Cdt1 release and MCM2-7 loading, we discovered that Orc1 ATP-hydrolysis is equally important in this process. Moreover, we found that Orc1/Cdc6 ATP-hydrolysis promotes the formation of the ORC/Cdc6/MCM2-7 (OCM) complex, which functions in MCM2-7 double-hexamer assembly. Importantly, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of ORC inhibits OCM establishment to ensure once per cell cycle replication. In summary, this work reveals multiple critical mechanisms that redefine our understanding of DNA licensing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several replication-initiation proteins are assembled stepwise onto replicators to form pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) to license eukaryotic DNA replication. We performed a yeast functional proteomic screen and identified the Rix1 complex members (Ipi1p-Ipi2p/Rix1-Ipi3p) as pre-RC components and critical determinants of replication licensing and replication-initiation frequency. Ipi3p interacts with pre-RC proteins, binds chromatin predominantly at ARS sequences in a cell cycle-regulated and ORC- and Noc3p-dependent manner and is required for loading Cdc6p, Cdt1p and MCM onto chromatin to form pre-RC during the M-to-G₁ transition and for pre-RC maintenance in G₁ phase-independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis. Moreover, Ipi1p and Ipi2p, but not other ribosome biogenesis proteins Rea1p and Utp1p, are also required for pre-RC formation and maintenance, and Ipi1p, -2p and -3p are interdependent for their chromatin association and function in pre-RC formation. These results establish a new framework for the hierarchy of pre-RC proteins, where the Ipi1p-2p-3p complex provides a critical link between ORC-Noc3p and Cdc6p-Cdt1p-MCM in replication licensing.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mcm2-7 replicative helicase is central to all steps of eukaryotic DNA replication. The hexameric ring of Mcm subunits forms six essential ATPases whose contributions to replication initiation remain unclear. Mcm2-7 complexes containing ATPase-motif mutations showed Mcm2-7 ATP binding and hydrolysis are required for helicase loading. Loading-defective Mcm2-7 mutant complexes were defective in initial Mcm2-7 recruitment or Cdt1 release. Comparison with Cdc6 ATPase mutants showed that Cdc6 ATP hydrolysis is not required for helicase loading but instead drives removal of Mcm2-7 complexes that cannot complete loading. A subset of Mcm2-7 ATPase-site mutants completed helicase loading but could not initiate replication. Individual mutants were defective in distinct events during helicase activation, including maintenance of DNA association, recruitment of the GINS helicase activator, and DNA unwinding. Consistent with its heterohexameric structure, our findings show that the six Mcm2-7 ATPase active sites are specialized for different functions during helicase loading and activation.
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