The central insulin system and energy balance.
ABSTRACT Insulin acts throughout the body to reduce circulating energy and to increase energy storage. Within the brain, insulin produces a net catabolic effect by reducing food intake and increasing energy expenditure; this is evidenced by the hypophagia and increased brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity induced by central insulin infusion. Reducing the activity of the brain insulin system via administration of insulin antibodies, receptor antisense treatment, or receptor knockdown results in hyperphagia and increased adiposity. However, despite decades of research into the role of central insulin in food intake, many questions remain to be answered, including the underlying mechanism of action.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Risk for obesity differs with ethnicity/race and is associated with insulin sensitivity (SI), insulin responsiveness, and dietary glycemic load (GL). The objective of this study was to test the hypotheses that, 1) obesity-prone, normal weight, African-American (AA) women would be more insulin sensitive than BMI-matched, never overweight AA women; 2) increased adiposity over time would be associated with greater baseline SI and higher dietary GL in AA but not European-American (EA) women; and 3) increased adiposity over time would be predicted by SI in women with high but not low acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg). METHODS: Two controlled weight loss interventions were conducted involving overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) premenopausal AA and EA women. The first included matching with normal-weight (BMI <25.0 kg/m2) controls following weight loss, and then comparing SI. The second included a 1-year follow-up of weight-reduced participants to identify predictors of change in %body fat. Main outcome measure in the first study was insulin sensitivity (SI) as assessed with intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and in the second study was change in %fat, as assessed with DXA, over one year. AIRg was assessed during IVGTT, and free-living diet was determined by food record. RESULTS: In the first study, formerly overweight AA women were 43% more insulin sensitive than BMI-matched never overweight AA (P < 0.05). In the second study, SI was positively associated with change in %fat over 1 year only in AA women (P < 0.05) and women with high AIRg (P < 0.05). In addition, AA who were insulin sensitive and who consumed a higher GL diet tended to gain greater %fat (P = 0.086 for diet x SI interaction). In both studies, AA women had higher AIRg (P < 0.001) than EA women. CONCLUSIONS: Formerly overweight (obesity-prone) AA women were more insulin sensitive than never overweight AA women, a quality that may predispose to adiposity, particularly when combined with a high GL diet. This ethnicity/race-specific effect may be due to high insulin responsiveness among AA.Nutrition & Metabolism 01/2013; 10(1):3. · 3.16 Impact Factor