Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among new mothers at 8 months later of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China.
ABSTRACT On May 12, 2008, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake struck China's southwestern Sichuan province. Recent studies have identified mental health problems among the survivors, but little is known about the impact of the Sichuan earthquake on the mental health of new mothers in the area. The main objective was to assess the impact of the Sichuan earthquake on the posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) and depression of new mothers. A total of 317 new mothers were interviewed in the hospital from January 2009 to March 2009. Symptoms of PTSD were measured using the impact of event scale-revised, and symptoms of postpartum depression were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. The prevalence rates of PTSD and postpartum depression were 19.9% and 29.0%, respectively. Women with high earthquake exposure had higher risks of PTSD (odds ratio (OR), 5.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.75-19.97; P < 0.001) and postpartum depression (OR, 7.28; 95% CI, 2.51-21.08; P < 0.001) than women without earthquake experience. In addition, women with low monthly family income and farm workers had a higher risk of having PTSD; women who were unemployed or with lower monthly family income and poor sleep had a higher risk of having depression. Earthquake experience increased the risks of having PTSD and depression among new mothers at 8 months later of the earthquake.
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ABSTRACT: The current study assessed the estimated rate of depression and associated risk factors among survivors 8 months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. A stratified random sample of 1514 participants was recruited from all temporary camp communities in a county town 45 km away from the epicenter. The estimated rate of depression was 35.7%. The severity of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with female sex, perceived livelihood security, loss of a family member, residential house damage or collapse, and not living in an urban area, whereas married status is a protector against depressive symptoms. The results suggest that community-based effective, sustainable, and culturally sensitive interventions and services are warranted and should be directed to the groups at high risk for mental health problems.The Journal of nervous and mental disease 03/2014; 202(4):275-279. DOI:10.1097/NMD.0000000000000118 · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Little research has focused on the relationship between health insurance and mental health in the community. The objective of this study is to determine how the basic health insurance system influences depression in Northwest China. Methods Participants were selected from 32 communities in two northwestern Chinese cities through a three-stage random sampling. Three waves of interviews were completed in April 2006, December 2006, and January 2008. The baseline survey was completed by 4,079 participants. Subsequently, 2,220 participants completed the first follow-up, and 1,888 completed the second follow-up. Depression symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results A total of 40.0% of participants had at least one form of health insurance. The percentages of participants with severe depressive symptoms in the three waves were 21.7%, 22.0%, and 17.6%. Depressive symptoms were found to be more severe among participants without health insurance in the follow-up surveys. After adjusting for confounders, participants without health insurance were found to experience a higher risk of developing severe depressive symptoms than participants with health insurance (7 months: OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.09-1.82; p = 0.01; 20 months: OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.37-2.61; p < 0.001). Conclusion A lack of basic health insurance can dramatically increase the risk of depression based on northwestern Chinese community samples.BMC Psychiatry 09/2012; 12(1):151. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-12-151 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the impact of the 6.3 magnitude 2009 L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake on standardized self-report measures of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) and frequency of disruptive nocturnal behaviours (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Addendum, PSQI-A) two years after the natural disaster. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed in 665 L'Aquila citizens exposed to the earthquake compared with a different sample (n = 754) of L'Aquila citizens tested 24 months before the earthquake. In addition, sleep quality and disruptive nocturnal behaviours (DNB) of people exposed to the traumatic experience were compared with people that in the same period lived in different areas ranging between 40 and 115 km from the earthquake epicenter (n = 3574). The comparison between L'Aquila citizens before and after the earthquake showed a significant deterioration of sleep quality after the exposure to the trauma. In addition, two years after the earthquake L'Aquila citizens showed the highest PSQI scores and the highest incidence of DNB compared to subjects living in the surroundings. Interestingly, above-the-threshold PSQI scores were found in the participants living within 70 km from the epicenter, while trauma-related DNBs were found in people living in a range of 40 km. Multiple regressions confirmed that proximity to the epicenter is predictive of sleep disturbances and DNB, also suggesting a possible mediating effect of depression on PSQI scores. The psychological effects of an earthquake may be much more pervasive and long-lasting of its building destruction, lasting for years and involving a much larger population. A reduced sleep quality and an increased frequency of DNB after two years may be a risk factor for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder.PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e55936. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055936 · 3.53 Impact Factor