Mobile Phone Use and Incidence of Glioma in the Nordic Countries 1979–2008
ABSTRACT Some case-control studies have reported increased risks of glioma associated with mobile phone use. If true, this would ultimately affect the time trends for incidence rates (IRs). Correspondingly, lack of change in IRs would exclude certain magnitudes of risk. We investigated glioma IR trends in the Nordic countries, and compared the observed with expected incidence rates under various risk scenarios.
We analyzed annual age-standardized incidence rates in men and women aged 20 to 79 years during 1979-2008 using joinpoint regression (35,250 glioma cases). Probabilities of detecting various levels of relative risk were computed using simulations.
For the period 1979 through 2008, the annual percent change in incidence rates was 0.4% (95% confidence interval = 0.1% to 0.6%) among men and 0.3% (0.1% to 0.5%) among women. Incidence rates have decreased in young men (20-39 years) since 1987, remained stable in middle-aged men (40-59 years) throughout the 30-year study period, and increased slightly in older men (60-79 years). In simulations, assumed relative risks for all users of 2.0 for an induction time of up to 15 years, 1.5 for up to 10 years, and 1.2 for up to 5 years were incompatible with observed incidence time trends. For heavy users of mobile phones, risks of 2.0 for up to 5 years' induction were also incompatible.
No clear trend change in glioma incidence rates was observed. Several of the risk increases seen in case-control studies appear to be incompatible with the observed lack of incidence rate increase in middle-aged men. This suggests longer induction periods than currently investigated, lower risks than reported from some case-control studies, or the absence of any association.
- SourceAvailable from: Parviz Tajik
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- "Cancer (IARC), has rated radiations from mobile phones in grade 2B, (available online at:< http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2011/pdfs/pr208_E.pdf>. That means mobile phone radiation is a possible human carcinogen and mobile phone use could be associated with some risk of carcinogenicity (Deltour et al., 2012; Hardell et al., 2011; Hartikka et al., 2009; Little et al., 2012; Morgan, 2006). Mobile phone safety standards are usually set by regulatory bodies considering the thermal effects of the radiations from base stations and mobile handsets. "
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- "Personal habits such as diet, alcohol use, caffeine intake, and nicotine use have been studied, but no clear association with GB has been identified. Multiple studies have also failed to correlate cell phone usage with tumor incidence.13,14 In the past 5 years, the role of cytomegalovirus genes in malignant gliomas has been explored. "
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GB) is one of the most lethal forms of cancer, with an invasive growth pattern that requires the use of adjuvant therapies, including chemotherapy and radiation, to prolong survival. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral chemotherapy with a limited side effect profile that has become the standard of care in GB treatment. While TMZ has made an impact on survival, tumor recurrence and TMZ resistance remain major challenges. Molecular markers, such as O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation status, can be helpful in predicting tumor response to TMZ, and therefore guides clinical decision making. This review will discuss the epidemiology and possible genetic underpinnings of GB, how TMZ became the standard of care for GB patients, the pharmacology of TMZ, the practical aspects of using TMZ in clinic, and how molecular diagnostics - particularly the use of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase status - affect clinical management.Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 01/2013; 5(1):1-9. DOI:10.2147/CPAA.S26586
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ABSTRACT: Removal of nanometer-sized contaminant particles (CPs) from substrates is essential in successful fabrication of nanoscale devices. The particle beam technique that uses nanometer-sized bullet particles (BPs) moving at supersonic velocity was improved by operating it at room temperature to achieve higher velocity and size uniformity of BPs and was successfully used to remove CPs as small as 10 nm. CO2 BPs were generated by gas-phase nucleation and growth in a supersonic nozzle; appropriate size and velocity of the BPs were obtained by optimizing the nozzle contours and CO2/He mixture fraction. Cleaning efficiency greater than 95% was attained. BP velocity was the most important parameter affecting removal of CPs in the 10-nm size range. Compared to cryogenic Ar or N2 particles, CO2 BPs were more uniform in size and had higher velocity and, therefore, cleaned CPs more effectively.Nanoscale Research Letters 04/2012; 7(1):211. DOI:10.1186/1556-276X-7-211 · 2.78 Impact Factor