International Sleeve Gastrectomy Expert Panel Consensus Statement: best practice guidelines based on experience of >12,000 cases.

Department of Surgery, Section of Minimally Invasive Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, 2950 Cleveland Clinic Boulevard, Weston, FL 33331, USA.
Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.94). 01/2012; 8(1):8-19. DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2011.10.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is an emerging surgical approach, but 1 that has seen a surge in popularity because of its perceived technical simplicity, feasibility, and good outcomes. An international expert panel was convened in Coral Gables, Florida on March 25 and 26, 2011, with the purpose of providing best practice guidelines through consensus regarding the performance of LSG. The panel comprised 24 centers and represented 11 countries, spanning all major regions of the world and all 6 populated continents, with a collective experience of >12,000 cases. It was thought prudent to hold an expert consensus meeting of some of the surgeons across the globe who have performed the largest volume of cases to discuss and provide consensus on the indications, contraindications, and procedural aspects of LSG. The panel undertook this consensus effort to help the surgical community improve the efficacy, lower the complication rates, and move toward adoption of standardized techniques and measures. The meeting took place at on-site meeting facilities, Biltmore Hotel, Coral Gables, Florida.
Expert panelists were invited to participate according to their publications, knowledge and experience, and identification as surgeons who had performed >500 cases. The topics for consensus encompassed patient selection, contraindications, surgical technique, and the prevention and management of complications. The responses were calculated and defined as achieving consensus (≥70% agreement) or no consensus (<70% agreement).
Full consensus was obtained for the essential aspects of the indications and contraindications, surgical technique, management, and prevention of complications. Consensus was achieved for 69 key questions.
The present consensus report represents the best practice guidelines for the performance of LSG, with recommendations in the 3 aforementioned areas. This report and its findings support a first effort toward the standardization of techniques and adoption of working recommendations formulated according to expert experience.

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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: This study evaluates our technique for robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy for morbidly obese and super obese patients and our outcomes. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy at a single center was performed. The procedure was performed with the da Vinci Si HD Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California). The staple line was imbricated with No. 2-0 polydioxanone in all cases. The super obese (body mass index ≥50 kg/m2) subset of patients was compared with the morbidly obese group in terms of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, operative times, perioperative complications, and excess body weight loss. Results: A total of 35 patients (15 female and 20 male patients) with a mean body mass index of 48.17 ± 11.7 kg/m2 underwent robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy. Of these patients, 11 were super obese and 24 were morbidly obese. The mean operative time was 116.3 ± 24.7 minutes, and the mean docking time was 8.9 ± 5.4 minutes. Mean blood loss was 19.36 ± 4.62 mL, and there were no complications, conversions, or perioperative deaths. When compared with the morbidly obese patients, the super obese patients showed no significant difference in operative time, blood loss, and length of hospital stay. There was a steep decline in operating room times after 10 cases of robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility and safety of robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy. Robotic assistance might help overcome the operative difficulties encountered in super obese patients. It shows a rapid reduction in operative times with the growing experience of the entire operative team. Robot-assisted sleeve gastrectomy can be a good procedure by which to introduce robotics in a bariatric surgery center before going on to perform Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and revision procedures.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in morbidly obese patients. Background: Symptomatic GERD is considered by many a contraindication to LSG. However, studies evaluating the relationship between LSG and GERD by 24-hour pH monitoring are lacking. Methods: Consecutive morbidly obese patients selected for LSG were included in a prospective clinical study. Gastroesophageal function was evaluated using a clinical validated questionnaire, upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and 24-hour pH monitoring before and 24 months after LSG. This trial is registered with (no. NCT02012894). Results: From June 2009 to September 2011, a total of 71 patients were enrolled into the study; 65 (91.5%) completed the 2-year protocol. On the basis of preoperative 24-hour pH monitoring, patients were divided into group A (pathologic, n = 28) and group B (normal, n = 37). Symptoms improved in group A, with the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Assessment Scale score decreasing from 53.1 +/- 10.5 to 13.1 +/- 3.5 (P < 0.001). The DeMeester score and total acid exposure (% pH < 4) decreased in group A patients (DeMeester score from 39.5 +/- 16.5 to 10.6 +/- 5.8, P < 0.001; % pH < 4 from 10.2 +/- 3.7 to 4.2 +/- 2.6, P < 0.001). Real "de novo" GERD occurred in 5.4% group B patients. No significant changes in lower esophageal sphincter pressure and esophageal peristalsis amplitude were found in both groups. Conclusions: LSG improves symptoms and controls reflux in most morbidly obese patients with preoperative GERD. In obese patients without preoperative evidence of GERD, the occurrence of "de novo" reflux is uncommon. Therefore, LSG should be considered an effective option for the surgical treatment of obese patients with GERD.
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    ABSTRACT: Pre- and post-operative stomach volumes can be important determinants for effectiveness of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in causing weight loss. There is little existing data on the volumes of stomach preoperatively and that excised during LSG. This study was designed to evaluate the change in gastric volume after LSG using multi-detector CT and to correlate it with early post-operative weight loss. Twenty consecutive patients with BMI ≥40 kg/m(2) and medical comorbidities underwent LSG between October 2011 and October 2013 and were analysed prospectively. The pre-operative stomach volume was measured by MDCT done 1-3 days before the surgery. LSG was performed in the standard manner using a 36F bougie. The volume of excised stomach was measured by distending the specimen with saline. MDCT of the upper abdomen was repeated 3 months postoperatively to calculate the gastric sleeve volume. Weight loss and resolution of comorbidities were documented. The mean pre-operative weight of patients was 123.90 kg, and the mean pre-operative stomach volume on MDCT was 1,067 ml. The stomach volume on pre-operative MDCT correlated with pre-operative weight and BMI. The mean volume of the excised stomach was 859 ml when measured by distension of the specimen and 850 ml on MDCT. After 3 months post surgery, the mean volume of gastric sleeve on MDCT was 217 ml, and the mean weight of the patients was 101.22 kg. The volume of the excised stomach calculated by MDCT correlated with the weight loss achieved 3 months postoperatively. However, no correlation was seen between the gastric sleeve volume 3 months postoperatively and weight loss during this period. MDCT is a good method to measure gastric volume before and after LSG. Early post-operative weight loss (3 months) correlates well with the volume of the excised stomach but not with that of the gastric sleeve.
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