Cryofiltration in the Treatment of Cryoglobulinemia and HLA Antibody-Incompatible Transplantation
Department of Nephrology and Transplantation, University Hospital, University of Warwick, UK.Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (Impact Factor: 1.71). 02/2012; 16(1):91-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-9987.2011.01004.x
Cryofiltration is a technique in which plasma is separated from blood and chilled, leading to the formation of "cryogel", a composite of heparin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulins, and other proteins. This is retained by further filtration and plasma is returned to the patient. There may be a role for cryofiltration in the treatment of cryoglobulinemia or where the application of other forms of plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption is limited. Five patients received six courses of cryofiltration. Two patients had cryoglobulinemia and three were treated before HLA antibody-incompatible renal transplantation. The treatment was associated with few adverse effects, and it was possible to treat up to 120 mL/kg plasma per session. There was a good clinical response in four patients. One patient was switched back to double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) because cryofiltration seemed to remove HLA antibodies less effectively, but the other two transplants have excellent function. In the cryoglobulinemia patients there was excellent clearance of cryoglobulins during each treatment (mean decrease of 78.2 (SD 14.1)% per treatment). Compared with DFPP, fewer immunoglobulins were removed and the mean percentage reductions in immunoglobulin G per treatment were 36.0 (4.0)% for cryoglobulinemia and 59.2 (2.5)% for DFPP (P < 0.01), with respective mean plasma volumes of 64.2 (10.3) and 71.1 (6.8) mL/kg treated. Cryofiltration offers a treatment choice in patients with cryoglobulinemia and in those who may not be able to tolerate high-volume DFPP. The technique used in the patients described here was less effective than DFPP; however, use of an alternative fractionator and treatment of higher plasma volumes may enhance the efficiency of cryofiltration.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Low blood pressure occurring in the absence of volume depletion, anti-hypertensive medication, heart failure or cortisol deficiency occurs in ∼5-10% of haemodialysis patients, and can result in serious complications. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is poorly understood.Methods We describe eight cases with dialysis-associated hypotension who underwent renal transplantation. Four patients were severely hypotensive with a systolic blood pressure (SBP) <100 mmHg before and during dialysis, and four had a SBP usually <100 mmHg during dialysis, but usually >100 mmHg between sessions. All had donor-specific human leukocyte antigen antibodies. Six patients underwent pre-transplant plasmapheresis, which was curtailed in two because of further falls in blood pressure. Two patients experienced clotting of their arteriovenous fistula. In one patient cryofiltration was used, which was tolerated without severe falls in the BP. The remaining patient, who had hypotension-associated retinal vein thrombosis before transplant, was supported with an epinephrine infusion and did not receive plasmapheresis.ResultsPost-transplant, the first patient did not receive pressor therapy and died from bowel ischaemia. The other seven patients were supported with inotropes on critical care. The administration of steroids did not reverse hypotension. The mean pre-treatment SBP was 96 mmHg (range 71-110, SEM 5.0). After inotropes were withdrawn and graft function was established, the mean SBP was 127 mmHg (range 113-149, SEM 4.9) (P < 0.01).Conclusions Renal transplantation was performed successfully and safely in patients when pressor therapy was used to treat severe dialysis-associated hypotension and, moreover, the blood pressure normalized rapidly after graft function was established.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 08/2012; 27(11). DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfs338 · 3.58 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Live kidney donor transplantation across immunological barriers, either blood group or positive crossmatch [ABO- and human leucocyte antigens (HLA)-incompatible kidney transplantation, respectively], is now practised widely across many transplant centres. This provides transplantation opportunities to patients that hitherto would have been deemed contra-indicated and would subsequently have waited indefinitely for a suitably matched kidney. Protocols have evolved with time as experience has grown and now a variety of desensitization strategies are currently practised to overcome such immunological barriers. In addition, desensitization protocols are complemented by kidney paired donation exchange schemes and therefore incompatible patients now have strategies to either confront or bypass immunological barriers, respectively. As the field expands it is clear that non-transplant clinicians will be exposed to incompatible kidney transplant recipients outside of experienced centres. It is therefore timely to review the evolution of practice that have led to current desensitization modalities, contrast protocols and outcomes of current regimens and speculate on future direction of incompatible kidney transplantation.QJM: monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 08/2012; 105(12). DOI:10.1093/qjmed/hcs154 · 2.50 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Selective apheresis procedures have been developed to target specific molecules, antibodies, or cellular elements in a variety of diseases. The advantage of the selective apheresis procedures over conventional therapeutic plasmapheresis is preservation of other essential plasma components such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and clotting factors. These procedures are more commonly employed in Europe and Japan, and few are available in the USA. Apheresis procedures discussed in this review include the various technologies available for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis, double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), cryofiltration, immunoadsorption procedures, adsorption resins that process plasma, extracorporeal photopheresis, and leukocyte apheresis. J. Clin. Apheresis 28:20-29, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Clinical Apheresis 02/2013; 28(1):20-9. DOI:10.1002/jca.21265 · 1.79 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.