Amelioration of radiation-induced skin injury by adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression in rats.
ABSTRACT Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern for radiation therapy. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the role of HO-1 in radiation-induced skin damage remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on radiation-induced skin injury in rats.
A control adenovirus (Ad-EGFP) and a recombinant adenovirus (Ad-HO1-EGFP) were constructed. Rats were irradiated to the buttock skin with a single dose of 45 Gy followed by a subcutaneous injection of PBS, 5 × 109 genomic copies of Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO1-EGFP (n = 8). After treatment, the skin MDA concentration, SOD activity and apoptosis were measured. The expression of antioxidant and pro-apoptotic genes was determined by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Skin reactions were measured at regular intervals using the semi-quantitative skin injury score.
Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP infected both epidermal and dermal cells and could spread to the surrounding regions. Radiation exposure upregulated the transcription of the antioxidant enzyme genes, including SOD-1, GPx2 and endogenous HO-1. HO-1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and inhibited the induction of ROS scavenging proteins. Moreover, HO-1 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect by suppressing FAS and FASL expression. Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP demonstrated significant improvement in radiation-induced skin injury.
The present study provides evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in alleviating radiation-induced skin damage in rats, which is helpful for the development of therapy for radiation-induced skin injury.
Article: Endotoxin-induced mortality is related to increased oxidative stress and end-organ dysfunction, not refractory hypotension, in heme oxygenase-1-deficient mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is an enzyme that degrades heme to generate CO (a vasodilatory gas), iron, and the potent antioxidant bilirubin. A disease process characterized by decreases in vascular tone and increases in oxidative stress is endotoxic shock. Moreover, HO-1 is markedly induced in multiple organs after the administration of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) to mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:To determine the role of HO-1 in endotoxemia, we administered LPS to mice that were wild-type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-), or homozygous null (-/-) for targeted disruption of HO-1. LPS produced a similar induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein in HO-1(+/+) and HO-1(+/-) mice, whereas HO-1(-/-) mice showed no HO-1 expression. Four hours after LPS, systolic blood pressure (SBP) decreased in all the groups. However, SBP was significantly higher in HO-1(-/-) mice (121+/-5 mm Hg) after 24 hours, compared with HO-1(+/+) (96+/-7 mm Hg) and HO-1(+/-) (89+/-13 mm Hg) mice. A sustained increase in endothelin-1 contributed to this SBP response. Even though SBP was higher, mortality was increased in HO-1(-/-) mice, and they exhibited hepatic and renal dysfunction that was not present in HO-1(+/+) and HO-1(+/-) mice. The end-organ damage and death in HO-1(-/-) mice was related to increased oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS:These data suggest that the increased mortality during endotoxemia in HO-1(-/-) mice is related to increased oxidative stress and end-organ (renal and hepatic) damage, not to refractory hypotension.Circulation 12/2000; 102(24):3015-3022. · 14.74 Impact Factor
Article: Photosensitized oxidation of membrane lipids: reaction pathways, cytotoxic effects, and cytoprotective mechanisms.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unsaturated lipids in cell membranes, including phospholipids and cholesterol, are well-known targets of oxidative modification, which can be induced by a variety of stresses, including ultraviolet A (UVA)- and visible light-induced photodynamic stress. Photodynamic lipid peroxidation has been associated with pathological conditions such as skin phototoxicity and carcinogenesis, as well as therapeutic treatments such as antitumor photodynamic therapy (PDT). Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOHs), including cholesterol hydroperoxides (ChOOHs), are important non-radical intermediates of the peroxidative process which can (i) serve as in situ reporters of type I vs. type II chemistry; (ii) undergo one-electron or two-electron reductive turnover which determines whether peroxidative injury is respectively intensified or suppressed; and (iii) mediate signaling cascades which either fortify antioxidant defenses of cells or evoke apoptotic death if oxidative pressure is too great. The purpose of this article is to review current understanding of photodynamic (UVA- or visible light-induced) lipid peroxidation with a special focus on LOOH generation and reactivity. Future goals in this area, many of which depend on continued development of state-of-the-art analytical techniques, will also be discussed.Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B Biology 11/2001; 63(1-3):103-13. · 2.81 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of overexpression of human Cu/Zn-SOD on activation-induced lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The process of lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis is known to be linked to oxidative stress. In the present study, we have used a new transgenic mouse model to investigate the effect of human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) overexpression on activation-induced lymphocytes proliferation and apoptosis. Cu/Zn-SOD activity was 3.5-fold higher in the spleen of the transgenic mice overexpressing Cu/Zn-SOD (Tg-Cu/Zn-SOD) compared to the wild-type littermates. Proliferative response of lymphocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Concanavalin A (Con A), and anti-CD3 was measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Activation-induced apoptosis was determined by incubating the T cells with anti-CD3 (primary stimulus) for 72 h, followed by restimulation with Con A (secondary stimulus) for various times. Apoptosis was assessed by measuring DNA fragmentation using a spectrofluorimetric assay and monitoring the expression of the specific apoptotic markers (Fas/CD95 receptor and Fas/CD95 ligand (Fas-L) using flow cytometry. There was no significant difference in proliferative response of lymphocytes to LPS, Con A, or anti-CD3 in transgenic mice overexpressing human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Tg-Cu/Zn-SOD) compared to wild-type littermates. In addition, no significant difference was observed in lymphocyte populations and subsets between Tg-Cu/Zn-SOD mice and wild-type littermates. However, splenic T cells from Tg-Cu/Zn-SOD mice exhibited a significantly (p <.05) higher level of activation-induced DNA fragmentation than T cells from wild-type littermates. The increase in DNA fragmentation was paralleled with an increase in the proportion of T cells expressing Fas and Fas-L molecules. The possible consequences of Cu/Zn-SOD overproduction on activation-induced apoptosis are discussed.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/2001; 30(11):1319-27. · 5.42 Impact Factor