Interaction of MxiG with the cytosolic complex of the type III secretion system controls Shigella virulence.
ABSTRACT Gram-negative bacteria use the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to colonize host cells. T3SSs are ring-shaped macromolecular complexes specific for the transport of effector molecules into host cells. It was recently suggested that a cytosolic ring-shaped protein complex delivers effector molecules to the T3SS. However, how transport of effector proteins is regulated is not known. Here, we report the high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of the whole cytosolic domain of MxiG (MxiG(1-126)), a major component of the inner T3SS rings in Shigella flexneri. MxiG(1-126) folds as an FHA domain, which specifically binds phosphorylated threonines. Indeed, MxiG(1-126) binds to Spa33, a cytoplasmic-ring component of Shigella, as revealed in pulldown studies. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed specific interaction of MxiG with a Spa33 peptide only if phosphorylated. In total, 24 copies of the MxiG(1-126) crystal structure were fitted into the cryo-EM map of the Shigella T3SS. The phosphoprotein binding site of each MxiG molecule faces the channel of the T3SS, allowing interaction with cytosolic binding partners. Secretion assays and host cell invasion studies of complemented Shigella knockout cells indicated that the phosphoprotein binding of MxiG is essential for bacterial virulence. Our findings suggest that MxiG is involved in T3SS regulation.
- SourceAvailable from: Marija Vuckovic[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The T3SS injectisome is a syringe-shaped macromolecular assembly found in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that allows for the direct delivery of virulence effectors into host cells. It is composed of a "basal body", a lock-nut structure spanning both bacterial membranes, and a "needle" that protrudes away from the bacterial surface. A hollow channel spans throughout the apparatus, permitting the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytosol to the host plasma membrane. The basal body is composed largely of three membrane-embedded proteins that form oligomerized concentric rings. Here, we report the crystal structures of three domains of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 basal body, and use a new approach incorporating symmetric flexible backbone docking and EM data to produce a model for their oligomeric assembly. The obtained models, validated by biochemical and in vivo assays, reveal the molecular details of the interactions driving basal body assembly, and notably demonstrate a conserved oligomerization mechanism.PLoS Pathogens 04/2013; 9(4):e1003307. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The virulence of a large number of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which transports select bacterial proteins into host cells. An essential component of the Yersinia T3S system is YscD, a single-pass inner membrane protein. We report here the 2.52-Å resolution structure of the cytoplasmic domain of YscD, called YscDc. The structure confirms that YscDc consists of a forkhead-associated (FHA) fold, which in many but not all cases specifies binding to phosphothreonine. YscDc, however, lacks the structural properties associated with phosphothreonine binding and thus most likely interacts with partners in a phosphorylation-independent manner. Structural comparison highlighted two loop regions, L3 and L4, as potential sites of interactions. Alanine substitutions at L3 and L4 had no deleterious effects on protein structure or stability but abrogated T3S in a dominant negative manner. To gain insight into the function of L3 and L4, we identified proteins associated with YscD by affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry. The lipoprotein YscJ was found associated with wild-type YscD, as was the effector YopH. Notably, the L3 and L4 substitution mutants interacted with more YopH than did wild-type YscD. These substitution mutants also interacted with SycH (the specific chaperone for YopH), the putative C-ring component YscQ, and the ruler component YscP, whereas wild-type YscD did not. These results suggest that substitutions in the L3 and L4 loops of YscD disrupted the dissociation of SycH from YopH, leading to the accumulation of a large protein complex that stalled the T3S apparatus.Journal of bacteriology 08/2012; 194(21):5949-58. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria.Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR 06/2012; 76(2):262-310. · 12.59 Impact Factor