Hypolipidemic agent Z-guggulsterone: metabolism interplays with induction of carboxylesterase and bile salt export pump.
ABSTRACT Z-Guggulsterone is a major ingredient in the Indian traditional hypolipidemic remedy guggul. A study in mice has established that its hypolipidemic effect involves the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), presumably by acting as an antagonist of this receptor. It is generally assumed that the antagonism leads to induction of cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme converting free cholesterol to bile acids. In this study, we tested whether Z-guggulsterone indeed induces human CYP7A1. In addition, the expression of cholesteryl ester hydrolase CES1 and bile salt export pump (BSEP) was monitored. Contrary to the general assumption, Z-guggulsterone did not induce CYP7A1. Instead, this phytosterol significantly induced CES1 and BSEP through transactivation. Z-Guggulsterone underwent metabolism by CYP3A4, and the metabolites greatly increased the induction potency on BSEP but not on CES1. BSEP induction favors cholesterol elimination, whereas CES1 involves both elimination and retention (probably when excessively induced). Interestingly, clinical trials reported the hypolipidemic response rates from 18% to 80% and showed that higher dosages actually increased VLDL cholesterol. Our findings predict that better hypolipidemic outcomes likely occur in individuals who have a relatively higher capacity of metabolizing Z-guggulsterone with moderate CES1 induction, a scenario possibly achieved by lowering the dosing regimens.
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ABSTRACT: The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is the major transporter for the secretion of bile acids from hepatocytes into bile in humans. Mutations of BSEP are associated with cholestatic liver diseases of varying severity including progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC-2), benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (BRIC-2) and genetic polymorphisms are linked to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Detailed analysis of these diseases has considerably increased our knowledge about physiology and pathophysiology of bile secretion in humans. This review focuses on expression, localization, and function, short- and long-term regulation of BSEP as well as diseases association and treatment options for BSEP-associated diseases.Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 07/2012; 36(6). DOI:10.1016/j.clinre.2012.06.006 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gold and copper nanoparticles have been widely investigated for photothermal therapy of cancer. However, degradability and toxicity of these nanoparticles remain concerns. Here, we compare hollow CuS nanoparticles (HCuSNPs) with hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) in similar particle sizes and morphology following intravenous administration to mice. The injected pegylated HCuSNPs (PEG-HCuSNPs) are eliminated through both hepatobiliary (67 percentage of injected dose, %ID) and renal (23 %ID) excretion within one month post injection. By contrast, 3.98 %ID of Au is excreted from liver and kidney within one month after i.v. injection of pegylated HAuNS (PEG-HAuNS). Comparatively, PEG-HAuNS are almost non-metabolizable, while PEG-HCuSNPs are considered biodegradable nanoparticles. PEG-HCuSNPs do not show significant toxicity by histological or blood chemistry analysis. Principal component analysis and 2-D peak distribution plots of data from matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS) of liver tissues demonstrated a reversible change in the proteomic profile in mice receiving PEG-HCuSNPs. This is attributed to slow dissociation of Cu ion from CuS nanoparticles along with effective Cu elimination for maintaining homeostasis. Nonetheless, an irreversible change in the proteomic profile is observed in the liver from mice receiving PEG-HAuNS by analysis of MALDI-TOF IMS data, probably due to the non-metabolizability of Au. This finding correlates with the elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase at 3 months after PEG-HAuNS injection, indicating potential long-term toxicity. The comparative results between the two types of nanoparticles will advance the development of HCuSNPs as a new class of biodegradable inorganic nanomaterials for photothermal therapy.ACS Nano 09/2013; DOI:10.1021/nn403202w · 12.03 Impact Factor
Article: How sweet it is to activate FXRHepatology 05/2014; 59(5). DOI:10.1002/hep.26778 · 11.19 Impact Factor