Hypolipidemic agent Z-guggulsterone: Metabolism interplays with induction of carboxylesterase and bile salt export pump
Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Pharmacogenomics and Molecular Therapy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.The Journal of Lipid Research (Impact Factor: 4.42). 03/2012; 53(3):529-39. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M014688
Z-Guggulsterone is a major ingredient in the Indian traditional hypolipidemic remedy guggul. A study in mice has established that its hypolipidemic effect involves the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), presumably by acting as an antagonist of this receptor. It is generally assumed that the antagonism leads to induction of cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme converting free cholesterol to bile acids. In this study, we tested whether Z-guggulsterone indeed induces human CYP7A1. In addition, the expression of cholesteryl ester hydrolase CES1 and bile salt export pump (BSEP) was monitored. Contrary to the general assumption, Z-guggulsterone did not induce CYP7A1. Instead, this phytosterol significantly induced CES1 and BSEP through transactivation. Z-Guggulsterone underwent metabolism by CYP3A4, and the metabolites greatly increased the induction potency on BSEP but not on CES1. BSEP induction favors cholesterol elimination, whereas CES1 involves both elimination and retention (probably when excessively induced). Interestingly, clinical trials reported the hypolipidemic response rates from 18% to 80% and showed that higher dosages actually increased VLDL cholesterol. Our findings predict that better hypolipidemic outcomes likely occur in individuals who have a relatively higher capacity of metabolizing Z-guggulsterone with moderate CES1 induction, a scenario possibly achieved by lowering the dosing regimens.
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ABSTRACT: Carboxylesterases (CES) constitute a class of hydrolytic enzymes that play critical roles in drug metabolism and lipid mobilization. Previous studies with a large number of human liver samples have suggested that the inducibility of carboxylesterases is inversely related with age. To directly test this possibility, neonatal (10 days of age) and adult mice were treated with the antiepileptic agent phenobarbital. The expression and hydrolytic activity were determined on six major carboxylesterases including ces1d, the ortholog of human CES1. Without exception, all carboxylesterases tested were induced to a greater extent in neonatal than adult mice. The induction was detected at mRNA, protein and catalytic levels. Ces1d was greatly induced and found to rapidly hydrolyze the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel and support the accumulation of neutral lipids. Phenobarbital represents a large number of therapeutic agents that induce drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in a species-conserved manner. The higher inducibility of carboxylesterases in the developmental age likely represents a general phenomenon cross species including human. Consequently, individuals in the developmental age may experience greater drug-drug interactions. The greater induction of ces1d also provides a molecular explanation to the clinical observation that children on antiepileptic drugs increase plasma lipids.Biochemical pharmacology 04/2012; 84(2):232-9. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2012.04.002 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Carboxylesterase-1 (CES1), the most versatile human carboxylesterase, plays critical roles in drug metabolism and lipid mobilization. This enzyme is highly induced by antioxidants and sensitizers in various cell lines. These compounds are known to activate nuclear factor-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2) by reacting to kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1). The aims of this study were to determine whether antioxidant sulforaphane (SFN) and sensitizer trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) target Keap1 similarly and whether they use the same element for CES1 induction. Cells over-expressing Keap1 were treated with TNBS or SFN and the formation of disulfide bonds among Keap1 molecules were determined. SFN promoted intramolecular disulfide formation whereas TNBS promoted intermolecular disulfide formation of Keap1. Two elements, sensitizing/antioxidant response element (S/ARE) and ARE4, were identified to support Nrf2 in the regulated expression of CES1A1. Both elements were bound by Nrf2, however, the S/ARE element supported, whereas the ARE4 element repressed Nrf2 transactivation. The repression required higher amounts of Nrf2, suggesting that the transactivation through the S/ARE element dominates the trans-repression through the ARE4 element under normal antioxidative condition. These findings conclude that compounds, although triggering the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, may differ in the mode of reacting with Keap1. These findings also conclude that both positive and negative Nrf2 elements exist even within the same gene, and such opposing mechanisms provide fine-tuning in transcriptional regulation by the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway. High levels of CES1 are linked to lipid retention. Excessive induction of CES1 by antioxidants and sensitizers likely provides a mechanism for potential detrimental effect on human health.Biochemical pharmacology 07/2012; 84(6):864-71. DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2012.06.025 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The bile salt export pump (BSEP) is the major transporter for the secretion of bile acids from hepatocytes into bile in humans. Mutations of BSEP are associated with cholestatic liver diseases of varying severity including progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC-2), benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (BRIC-2) and genetic polymorphisms are linked to intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Detailed analysis of these diseases has considerably increased our knowledge about physiology and pathophysiology of bile secretion in humans. This review focuses on expression, localization, and function, short- and long-term regulation of BSEP as well as diseases association and treatment options for BSEP-associated diseases.Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 07/2012; 36(6). DOI:10.1016/j.clinre.2012.06.006 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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