Article

Zoophilic feeding behaviour of phlebotomine sand flies in the endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis of Sindh Province, Pakistan.

Laboratory of Parasitology, Department of Disease Control, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18 Nishi 9, Sapporo, 060-0818, Japan.
Parasitology Research (Impact Factor: 2.85). 01/2012; 111(1):125-33. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-011-2808-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Leishmania (Leishmania) major has been identified as the major causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sindh Province of southern Pakistan. To make a rational approach for understanding the pathogen transmission cycles, the sand fly species and their natural blood meals in the endemic areas were examined. Total DNA was individually extracted from sand flies collected in four villages in Sindh Province. PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene revealed that female sand flies identified were Sergentomyia clydei/Sergentomyia ghesquierei/Sergentomyia magna (68.6%), Sergentomyia dubia (17.1%), Phlebotomus papatasi (7.4%), Phlebotomus alexandri-like sand flies (3.4%) and Sergentomyia dentata (3.4%). PCR amplification of leishmanial kinetoplast DNA did not result in positive signals, suggesting that all 175 tested female sand flies were not infected with leishmanial parasites or contained undetectable levels of leishmanial DNA. Amplification and sequencing of the vertebrate cytochrome b gene in 28 blood-fed sand flies revealed that P. papatasi fed on cattle and wild rat whereas P. alexandri-like specimens fed on human, cattle, goat and dog. Although Sergentomyia sand flies are generally known to feed on cold-blooded animals, S. clydei, S. dubia and S. ghesquierei preferred humans, cattle, goat, sheep, buffalo, dog, donkey, wild rat and Indian gerbil. The epidemiological significance of the zoophilic feeding on various host species by Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia sand flies in Pakistan is further required to study for better understanding the zoonotic transmission of sand-fly-borne pathogens and for appropriate management of the vectors.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
133 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmania siamensis was firstly described as a causative agent of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in southern provinces of Thailand since 2008. The spread of leishmaniasis depends on the distribution of the vectors and reservoir hosts. Unfortunately, little is known about these vital factors. The objective of this study was to identify the distribution of sandfly species, their density, and their habitats in the affected areas of leishmaniasis, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey of sandflies was conducted in three provinces of southern Thailand where leishmaniasis cases were previously reported. The collection of sandflies was performed using CDC light traps for four consecutive months, from March to June 2009. A total of 2,698 sandflies were collected in the affected areas. Among 1,451 female sandflies, six species of genus Sergentomyia were identified, i.e., Sergentomyia gemmea, Sergentomyia iyengari, Sergentomyia barraudi, Sergentomyia indica, Sergentomyia silvatica, and Sergentomyia perturbans. S. gemmea (81.4 %) was the most predominant species in all areas. In addition, one species of the genus Phlebotomus, Phlebotomus argentipes, a known vector of leishmaniasis was also detected. The distribution of sandfly species in these leishmaniasis-affected areas was different from the previous studies in other areas of Thailand. Further studies are needed to proof whether these sandflies can be the natural vectors of leishmaniasis.
    Parasitology Research 09/2012; · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since 2010, the number of cases of both human visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwestern Madrid region (Spain) and more specifically in the town of Fuenlabrada has increased. Direct xenodiagnosis of leishmaniasis proved that hares (Lepus granatensis) from this focus are able to infect with Leishmania infantum colonized Phlebotomus perniciosus. To a better understanding of this focus of leishmaniasis, we conducted an entomological survey using CDC light traps, at the end of the seasonal transmission period of 2011 before the beginning of control measures of the disease, to study the phlebotomine sand flies species involved. Detection of Leishmania DNA in the sand flies captured was studied by kDNA-PCR and cpb-PCR. In addition, blood fed and gravid female P. perniciosus were analysed by a PCR based in vertebrate cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. Taxonomic identification of captured sand flies (n = 174) as P. perniciosus (n = 171) and Sergentomyia minuta (n = 3) together with the analysis of blood feeding in ten sand flies that shows a high preference for hares (n = 6), followed by humans (n = 3), and cats (n = 1) confirm a strong association between P. perniciosus hares and humans in the focus. Moreover, 79 out of 135 (58.5 %) P. perniciosus were positive to L. infantum by PCR approaches. These data support the increase of human leishmaniasis cases in the area and the existence of an unusual sylvatic cycle alternative to the classical domestic one, where the dog is the main reservoir of L. infantum.
    Parasitology Research 03/2013; · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sand flies belonging to the genus Sergentomyia Franca & Parrot, 1920, are hematophagous insects feeding mostly on reptiles and birds, but some species feed also on mammals including humans. Sergentomyia spp. frequently comprise the vast majority of sand flies trapped along with Phlebotomus spp., the vectors of mammalian leishmaniasis. Within the framework of a project on the ecology and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia, putative breeding sites of phlebotomine sand flies were studied. Large horizontal sticky traps (LHSTs) covered with sand fly-proof mesh were deployed over cracked vertisol and related habitats for up to 3 nights, and emerging sand flies were collected daily. Emergence traps (ETs) were also adapted to sample other putative breeding sites including tree trunks, termite mounds, rock piles and vertical river banks. Productive breeding sites were identified in the trunks and roots systems of trees, vertisol fields, cracks and burrows in vertisol dry river banks and termite mounds. Emerging flies were also collected form a stone wall and a rock pile situated inside a village. Significantly more Sergentomyia spp. were trapped in vertisols by ETs deployed over root system than in open fields. Similarly, more sand flies emerged from cracks in the vertisol in fallow Sorghum than in fallow sesame fields. Productive breeding sites were characterized by stable micro-climatic conditions. Species composition of emerging sand flies varied with habitat, season and geographical location.
    Acta tropica. 05/2014;

Full-text

View
46 Downloads
Available from
May 17, 2014