Outcomes and bleb-related complications of trabeculectomy.
ABSTRACT To determine rates of success and complications of trabeculectomy surgery.
Consecutive patients undergoing trabeculectomy by 2 surgeons between May 2000 and October 2008.
By using the Wilmer Institute's billing database, we identified all patients at least 12 years of age coded as having undergone trabeculectomy between May 2000 and October 2008 by 1 of 2 glaucoma surgeons and whose surgery was not combined with another operation. From the chart, we abstracted demographic information on the patients and clinical characteristics of the eyes. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and Cox proportional hazard models were used to look at success rates and characteristics associated with inadequate intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction. Complications were tabulated.
(1) Success rate of trabeculectomy, as determined by the achievement of each of 4 different IOP goals, with or without IOP-lowering medications; and (2) incidence of surgical complications.
During the study period, 797 eyes of 634 persons underwent trabeculectomy without concurrent surgery. The success rates 4 years after surgery, with or without the use of IOP-lowering eye drops, were 70%, 72%, 60%, and 44%, for achievement of target IOP, ≤18 mmHg and ≥20% IOP reduction, ≤15 mmHg and ≥25% reduction, and ≤12 mmHg and ≥30% reduction, respectively. Increased chance of success was associated with European-derived race; use of mitomycin C (MMC); higher concentrations of MMC, when used; and higher preoperative IOP. Age and previous intraocular surgery were not associated with surgical success. Complications included worsening lens opacity in 242 of 443 phakic eyes (55%), loss of ≥3 lines of acuity (Snellen) in 161 eyes (21%), surgery for bleb-related problems in 70 eyes (8.8%), and infection occurring >6 weeks after surgery in 27 eyes (3.4%). A total of 101 eyes of 94 patients had at least 1 subsequent operation for inadequate IOP control.
Trabeculectomy surgery performed by 2 experienced glaucoma specialists achieved target IOP at 4 years in 70% of those operated and was associated with progressive cataract and small risks of bleb-related complications. These results are comparable to those reported in smaller series.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Trabeculectomy remains a mainstay surgery for glaucoma. The necessity to raise a bleb and use of chemoadjuvants may result in bleb-related complications, such as bleb-fibrosis, bleb-leaks, bleb-related infections, overfiltration, or hypotony. This review highlights some of the latest developments in preventing and managing these complications, including anti-vascular endothelial growth factors, monoclonal antibodies for moderate reduction of fibrosis, newer surgical strategies for bleb leaks, an update from a randomized clinical trial highlighting the incidence and management of bleb-related infections, and various treatment strategies for an overfiltering bleb. In addition, other surgical interventions with less or no bleb-related complications will be discussed, including non-penetrating glaucoma surgeries, glaucoma drainage devices, or phacoemulsification.Seminars in ophthalmology 05/2013; 28(3):144-156. · 1.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To report the 5-year incidence of bleb-related infection after mitomycin C–augmented glaucoma filtering surgery and to investigate the risk factors for infections. Design Prospective, observational cohort study. Participants A total of 1098 eyes of 1098 glaucoma patients who had undergone mitomycin C–augmented trabeculectomy or trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation performed at 34 clinical centers. Methods Patients were followed up at 6-month intervals for 5 years, with special attention given to bleb-related infections. The follow-up data were analyzed via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Main Outcome Measures Incidence of bleb-related infection over 5 years and risk factors for infections. Results Of the 1098 eyes, a bleb-related infection developed in 21 eyes. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the incidence of bleb-related infection was 2.2±0.5% (cumulative incidence ± standard error) at the 5-year follow-up for all cases, whereas it was 7.9±3.1% and 1.7±0.4% for cases with and without a history of bleb leakage, respectively (P = 0.000, log-rank test). When only eyes with a well-functioning bleb were counted, it was 3.9±1.0%. No differences were found between the trabeculectomy cases and the combined surgery cases (P = 0.398, log-rank test) or between cases with a fornix-based flap and those with a limbal-based flap (P = 0.651, log-rank test). The Cox model revealed that a history of bleb leakage and younger age were risk factors for infections. Conclusions The 5-year cumulative incidence of bleb-related infection was 2.2±0.5% in eyes treated with mitomycin C–augmented trabeculectomy or trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in our prospective, multicenter study. Bleb leakage and younger age were the main risk factors for infections.Ophthalmology 01/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the long-term effects of postoperative flat anterior chamber (FAC) development on outcomes following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. This was a retrospective cohort study. Data on 383 consecutive patients (383 eyes) who underwent trabeculectomy at our institution between 1999 and 2009 were followed up. Patients who developed FAC after trabeculectomy and patients with maintained anterior chamber were evaluated. The primary outcome variable was the success of the initial trabeculectomy, which was defined at 3 different levels by the achievement of the following intraocular pressure (IOP)-related criteria without secondary IOP-lowering surgery: (a) IOP ≤ 12 mmHg and ≤30 % reduction in IOP from the preoperative level; (b) IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and ≤20 % reduction in IOP; and (c) IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. The hazard ratios (HRs) for the failure of trabeculectomy caused by FAC within 5 years of surgery were examined in conjunction with the Cox proportional hazards regression model. FAC was observed in 90 of the 383 eyes examined (23.4 %). Postoperative mild FAC was associated with the long-term success of trabeculectomy when evaluated according to our strictest success criterion, Criterion-A [HR = 0.72 (95 % CI 0.53-0.98); P = 0.04]. In contrast, severe FAC was inversely associated with the long-term success of the surgery when evaluated according to our most lenient criterion, Criterion-C [HR = 1.93 (95 % CI 1.16-3.22); P = 0.01]. Mild postoperative FAC after trabeculectomy is associated with a favorable long-term outcome, whereas severe postoperative FAC leads to an unfavorable prognosis.Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 08/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor