Substance P activates ADAM9 mRNA expression and induces α-secretase-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage
ABSTRACT Altered levels of Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide endowed with neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties, were found in brain areas and spinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. One of the hallmarks of AD is the abnormal extracellular deposition of neurotoxic beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides, derived from the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). In the present study, we confirmed, the neurotrophic action of SP in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and investigated its effects on APP metabolism. Incubation with low (5 mM) potassium induced apoptotic cell death of CGCs and amyloidogenic processing of APP, whereas treatment with SP (200 nM) reverted these effects via NK1 receptors. The non-amyloidogenic effect of SP consisted of reduction of Aβ(1-42), increase of sAPPα and enhanced α-secretase activity, without a significant change in steady-state levels of cellular APP. The intracellular mechanisms whereby SP alters APP metabolism were further investigated by measuring mRNA and/or steady-state protein levels of key enzymes involved with α-, β- and γ-secretase activity. Among them, Adam9, both at the mRNA and protein level, was the only enzyme to be significantly down-regulated following the induction of apoptosis (K5) and up-regulated after SP treatment. In addition to its neuroprotective properties, this study shows that SP is able to stimulate non-amyloidogenic APP processing, thereby reducing the possibility of generation of toxic Aβ peptides in brain.
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative disorders are undoubtedly an increasing problem in the health sciences, given the increase of life expectancy and occasional vicious life style. Despite the fact that the mechanisms of such diseases are far from being completely understood, a large number of studies that derive from both the basic science and clinical approaches have contributed substantial data in that direction. In this review, it is discussed several frontiers of basic research on Parkinson´s and Alzheimer´s diseases, in which research groups from three departments of the Institute of Biomedical Sciences of the University of São Paulo have been involved in a multidisciplinary effort. The main focus of the review involves the animal models that have been developed to study cellular and molecular aspects of those neurodegenerative diseases, including oxidative stress, insulin signaling and proteomic analyses, among others. We anticipate that this review will help the group determine future directions of joint research in the field and, more importantly, set the level of cooperation we plan to develop in collaboration with colleagues of the Nucleus for Applied Neuroscience Research that are mostly involved with clinical research in the same field.Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 10/2012; 34 Suppl 2:s194-205. DOI:10.1016/j.rbp.2012.08.004 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides that have neuroinflammatory, neuroimmunological, and neuroprotective functions. In a neuroprotective role, tachykinins can help protect cells against the neurotoxic processes observed in Alzheimer's disease. A change in copper homeostasis is a clear feature of Alzheimer's disease and the disregulation may be a contributory factor in toxicity. Copper has recently been shown to interact with neurokinin A and neuropeptide γ and can lead to generation of reactive oxygen species and peptide degradation, which suggests that copper may have a place in tachykinin function and potentially misfunction. To explore this we have utilized a range of spectroscopic techniques to show that NKB, but not substance P, can bind Cu(II) in an unusual [Cu(II)(NKB)2] neutral complex that utilizes two N-terminal amine and two imidazole nitrogen ligands (from each molecule of NKB) and the binding substantially alters the structure of the peptide. Using 1321N1 astrocytoma cells we show that copper can enter the cells and subsequently open plasma membrane calcium channels, but when bound to neurokinin B copper ion uptake is inhibited. This data suggests a novel role for neurokinin B in protecting cells against copper induced calcium changes and implicates the peptide in synaptic copper homeostasis.ACS Chemical Neuroscience 07/2013; DOI:10.1021/cn4000988 · 4.21 Impact Factor
Dataset: Paper Review NAPNA