Functional and proteomic analysis of submandibular saliva in rats exposed to chronic stress by immobilization or constant light.
ABSTRACT In this study, we have evaluated the effects of stress on functional and proteomic changes in submandibular saliva of rats.
Male adult rats were divided in three groups: IMO (2 h/day of immobilization for 7 days), LL (constant light during 20 days), C (unstressed controls submitted to 14 h light-10h dark cycle). Body weight, food intake and the dry weight of submandibular gland were recorded. Saliva samples, collected under anaesthesia following i.p. administration of isoproterenol and pilocarpine (5 mg/kg), were assayed for total proteins (TP), amylase activity and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis.
Body weight, food intake and the dry weight of submandibular gland of IMO rats were lower than those of C and LL groups. The salivary volumes secreted in IMO and LL rats, were significantly higher than in controls. The TP output (μg protein/μg saliva/mg of dry tissue) and amylase activity output (AU/μg of saliva/mg of dry tissue) in IMO were significantly higher than in C and LL animals. The electrophoretic pattern of saliva proteins of LL rats, revealed the absence of a protein band of approximately 25 kDa. This band was composed by the common salivary protein-1 and a prolactin-induced protein as identified by peptide mass fingerprinting.
Differences in body weight and food intake between IMO and LL might be attributed to the sort and intensity of stressors stimuli. The changes in the volume of secreted saliva could be a compensatory mechanism in response to stressors. The increase of total protein in IMO rats and the absence of 25 kDa proteins in LL, would suggest that the submandibular glands respond to the sympathetic nervous system stimuli induced by the stress with an increase of activity of the sympathetic nerves in IMO and a reduction in LL rats.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The arcuate nucleus (ARC) in the basal of hypothalamus plays an important role in appetite regulation and energy balance. We sought to investigate the central neuroendocrine mechanism of appetite decrease and weight loss under chronic stress by observing the regulatory effects of Xiaoyaosan decoction in the expression of leptin receptor (ob-R) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the ARC. Our results showed that bodyweight and food intake of rats in the 21-day stress group increased slower than those of the normal group. Higher contents of Leptin and ob-R were noted in the 21-day stress group compared with control rats, while NPY expression was not statistically different. Xiaoyaosan powder can significantly downregulate the contents of leptin and ob-R in the hypothalamus of stressed rats. These findings suggest that increase of ob-R expression in the ARC is possibly one key central neuroendocrine change for the somatic discomfort. Weight loss and decreased food intake in rats caused by the binding of leptin to ob-R in hypothalamus do not appear to utilize the NPY pathway. This study also suggests that ob-R in the ARC may act as the target of Xiaoyaosan in regulating the symptoms such as appetite decrease and bodyweight loss under chronic stress.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:381278. · 1.72 Impact Factor