Transcranial Doppler and Cerebral Augmentation in Acute Ischemic Stroke.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Collateral flow augmentation using partial aortic occlusion may improve cerebral perfusion in acute stroke. We assessed the effect of partial aortic occlusion on arterial flow velocities of acute stroke patients. METHODS: Patients with neurological deficits following thrombolysis were treated with partial aortic occlusion. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) was used to measure arterial flow velocities at baseline, before and during balloon inflation. The augmented mean flow velocity (MFV), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity flow percentages (aMFV%, aPSV%, aEDV%) were calculated and compared based on outcome. RESULTS: Of 11 patients, 3 did not have a temporal window and thus were excluded from our analysis. Six of the remaining 8 patients had middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions; the final 2 had terminal internal carotid artery (TICA) occlusions. Three of these 8 patients had good outcome at 90 days (mRS < 3). Before intra-aortic balloon inflation (IABI), the mean affected artery MFV was 23 ± 11 cm/s; during the procedure it was 26 ± 12 cm/s (P = .2). Mean affected artery PSV at baseline and during balloon inflation were 37 ± 16 and 46 ± 23, respectively (P = .1). Mean augmented affected artery MFV% in patients with good long-term outcome was 65.4 ± 46, while the result in those with poor outcome was -3.7 ± 21 (P = .03). Three patients developed anterior cross-filling, and of these 2 had good long-term outcome. CONCLUSION: TCD monitoring of patients treated with IABI may help in predicting outcome in this novel device. J Neuroimaging 2012;XX:1-6.
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ABSTRACT: To examine left ventricular responses to aortic occlusion, changes in end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) were estimated by ultrasonic recordings of myocardial distances in atropinized open-chest dogs. During aortic occlusion EDV and ESV increased equally, systolic left ventricular pressure (LVP) rose by 86 +/- 8 mmHg, and blood flow more than doubled in the superior vena cava and fell by 90% in the inferior vena cava. During combined occlusion of aorta and inferior vena cava, systolic LVP and superior vena cava flow did not rise above control and EDV declined. By infusing 25 +/- 2 ml/kg body wt of blood during combined occlusion, the effects of aortic occlusion could be reproduced; control values before blood infusion were reestablished by withdrawal of only one-third of the infused volume, indicating a shunt line along the spinal column. Thus during aortic occlusion, transfer of blood accounts for the rise in EDV and increased activation of the Frank-Starling mechanism; increased afterload raises ESV as much as EDV in anesthetized dogs not subjected to sympathetic stimulation. Consequently, stroke volume is maintained and systolic LVP increased.The American journal of physiology 05/1980; 238(4):H423-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) has been shown to reduce angina and to improve objective measures of myocardial ischemia in patients with refractory angina. Prospective clinical studies and large treatment registries suggest that a course of EECP is associated with prolongation of the time to exercise-induced ST-segment depression and resolution of myocardial perfusion defects, as well as with enhanced exercise tolerance and quality of life. With a growing knowledge base supporting the safety and beneficial clinical effects associated with EECP, this therapy can be considered a valuable treatment option, particularly in patients who have exhausted traditional revascularization methods and yet remain symptomatic despite optimal medical care. However, although the concept of external counterpulsation was introduced almost four decades ago, and despite growing evidence supporting the clinical benefit and safety of this therapeutic modality, little is firmly established regarding the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects associated with this technique. Suggested mechanisms contributing to the clinical benefit of EECP include improvement in endothelial function, promotion of coronary collateralization, enhancement of ventricular function, peripheral effects similar to those observed with regular physical exercise, and nonspecific placebo effects. This review summarizes the current evidence for a contribution of these mechanisms to the clinical benefit associated with EECP.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2003; 41(11):1918-25. · 14.09 Impact Factor