Postoperative complications after thoracic surgery in the morbidly obese patient.
ABSTRACT Little has been recently published about specific postoperative complications following thoracic surgery in the morbidly obese patient. Greater numbers of patients who are obese, morbidly obese, or supermorbidly obese are undergoing surgical procedures. Postoperative complications after thoracic surgery in these patients that can lead to increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospital stay, and increased cost of care are considered. Complications include difficulties with mask ventilation and securing the airway, obstructive sleep apnea with risk of oversedation, pulmonary complications related to reduced total lung capacity, reduced functional residual capacity, and reduced vital capacity, risks of aspiration pneumonitis and ventilator-associated pneumonia, cardiomyopathies, and atrial fibrillation, inadequate diabetes management, positioning injuries, increased risk of venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. The type of thoracic surgical procedure may also pose other problems to consider during the postoperative period. Obese patients undergoing thoracic surgery pose a challenge to those caring for them. Those working with these patients must understand how to recognize, prevent, and manage these postoperative complications.
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ABSTRACT: IMPLICATIONS: Previous studies have shown that obese patients have a larger volume of gastric content than lean patients do. However, methodological limitations call into question the validity of these findings. We have reexamined this issue and found identical gastric content volumes in fasting obese and lean subjects after an 8-h fast.Anesthesia & Analgesia 01/2002; 93(6):1621-2, table of contents. · 3.29 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) nasal ventilation on the postoperative pulmonary restrictive syndrome in obese patients undergoing gastroplasty.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Upper abdominal surgery results in a postoperative restrictive pulmonary syndrome. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP System; Respironics Inc; Murrysville, Pa), which combines pressure support ventilation and positive end-expiratory pressure via a nasal mask, could allow alveolar recruitment during inspiration and prevent expiratory alveolar collapse, and therefore limit the postoperative pulmonary restrictive syndrome. This study investigated the effect of BiPAP on postoperative pulmonary function in obese patients after gastroplasty. Prospective controlled randomized study. GI surgical ward in a university hospital. Thirty-three morbidly obese patients scheduled for gastroplasty were studied. The patients were assigned to one of three techniques of ventilatory support during the first 24 h postoperatively: O2 via a face mask, BiPAP System 8/4, with inspiratory and expiratory positive airway pressure set at 8 and 4 cm H2O, respectively, or BiPAP System 12/4 set at 12 and 4 cm H2O. Pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, and peak expiratory flow rate [PEFR]) were measured the day before surgery, 24 h after surgery, and on days 2 and 3. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter (SpO2) was also recorded during room air breathing. Three patients were excluded. After surgery, FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and SpO2 significantly decreased in the three groups. On day 1, FVC and FEV1 were significantly improved in the group BiPAP System 12/4, as compared with no BiPAP; SpO2 was also significantly improved. After removal of BiPAP System 12/4, these benefits were maintained, allowing faster recovery of pulmonary function. No significant effects were observed on PEFR. BiPAP System 8/4 had no significant effect on the postoperative pulmonary restrictive syndrome. Prophylactic use of BiPAP System 12/4 during the first 24 h postoperatively significantly reduces pulmonary dysfunction after gastroplasty in obese patients and accelerates reestablishment of preoperative pulmonary function.Chest 04/1997; 111(3):665-70. · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the anesthetic management of a patient with extreme obesity undergoing bariatric surgery whose intraoperative narcotic management was entirely substituted with dexmedetomidine. We describe a 433-kg morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnea and pulmonary hypertension who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Because of the concern that the use of narcotics might cause postoperative respiratory depression, we substituted their intraoperative use with a continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.7 microg.kg(-1).hr(-1)). The anesthesia course was uneventful, and the intraoperative use of dexmedetomidine was associated with low anesthetic requirements (0.5 minimum alveolar concentration). After completion of the operation and after tracheal extubation, the dexmedetomidine infusion was continued uninterrupted throughout the end of the first postoperative day. The analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine extended narcotic-sparing effects into the postoperative period; the patient had lower narcotic requirements during the first postoperative day [48 mg of morphine by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA)] while still receiving dexmedetomidine, compared to the second postoperative day (morphine 148 mg by PCA) with similar pain scores. Dexmedetomidine may be a useful anesthetic adjunct for patients who are susceptible to narcotic-induced respiratory depression. In this morbidly obese patient the narcotic-sparing effects of dexmedetomidine were evident both intraoperatively and postoperatively.Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 03/2005; 52(2):176-80. · 2.35 Impact Factor