Radiation Dosimetry and Biodistribution of the TSPO Ligand C-11-DPA-713 in Humans

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Impact Factor: 6.16). 02/2012; 53(2):330-5. DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.111.094565
Source: PubMed


Whole-body PET/CT was used to characterize the radiation dosimetry of (11)C-DPA-713, a specific PET ligand for the assessment of translocator protein.
Six healthy control subjects, 3 men and 3 women, underwent whole-body dynamic PET scans after bolus injection of (11)C-DPA-713. Subjects were scanned from head to mid thigh with 7 passes performed, with a total PET acquisition of approximately 100 min. Time-activity curves were generated in organs with visible tracer uptake, and tissue residence times were calculated. Whole-body dosimetry was calculated using OLINDA 1.1 software, assuming no voiding.
The absorbed dose is highest in the lungs, spleen, kidney, and pancreas. The lungs were determined to be the dose-limiting organ, with an average absorbed dose of 2.01 × 10(-2) mSv/MBq (7.43 × 10(-2) rem/mCi). On the basis of exposure limits outlined in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR361.1), the single-dose limit for (11)C-DPA-713 radiotracer injection is 2,487.6 MBq (67.3 mCi).
(11)C-DPA-713 has an uptake pattern that is consistent with the biodistribution of translocator protein and yields a dose burden that is comparable to that of other (11)C-labeled PET tracers.

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Available from: Christopher J Endres, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "In fact, Kam et al. [27] showed TSPO expression in rodent bone tissue. In addition, dosimetry studies of (R)-[11C]PK11195 and [11C]DPA-713 showed uptake in human red marrow [28,29]. Therefore, prevention of uptake of TSPO tracers in peri-articular bone of joints affected by RA does not seem to be feasible. "
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    ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of and subsequent monitoring of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could benefit from detection of (sub)clinical synovitis. Imaging of (sub)clinical arthritis by targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) on activated macrophages is feasible using (R)-[11C] PK11195-based positron emission tomography (PET), but clinical applications are limited by background uptake in peri-articular bone/bone marrow. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate two other TSPO ligands with potentially lower background uptake in neurological studies, [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714, in a rat model of arthritis. TSPO binding of DPA-713, DPA-714 and PK11195 were assessed by in vitro competition studies with [3H]DPA-713 using human macrophage THP-1 cells and CD14+ monocytes from healthy volunteers. In vivo studies were performed in rats with methylated bovine serum albumin-induced knee arthritis. Immunohistochemistry with anti-TSPO antibody was performed on paraffin-embedded sections. Rats were imaged with [11C]DPA-713 or [18F]DPA-714 PET, followed by ex vivo tissue distribution studies. Results were compared with the tracer (R)-[11C]PK11195, the established ligand for TSPO. In THP-1 cells, relative TSPO binding of DPA-713 and DPA-714 were 7-fold and 25-fold higher, respectively, than in PK11195. Comparable results were observed in CD14+ monocytes from healthy volunteers. In the arthritis rat model, immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of TSPO-positive inflammatory cells in the arthritic knee. PET images showed that uptake of [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714 in arthritic knees was significantly increased compared with contralateral knees and knees of normal rats. Uptake in arthritic knees could be largely blocked by an excess of PK11195. [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714 provided improved contrast compared with (R)-[11C]PK11195, as was shown by significantly higher arthritic knee-to-bone ratios of [11C]DPA-713 (1.60 +/- 0.31) and [18F]DPA-714 (1.55 +/- 0.10) compared with (R)-[11C]PK11195 (1.14 +/- 0.19). [11C]DPA-713 and [18F]DPA-714 clearly visualized arthritis and exhibited lower (peri-articular) bone/bone marrow uptake than (R)-[11C]PK11195. These features merit further investigation of these tracers for early diagnosis and therapy monitoring of RA in a clinical setting.
    Arthritis research & therapy 03/2014; 16(2):R70. DOI:10.1186/ar4509 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A practical, multigram approach to the 2-(2-(4-alkoxyphenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3- yl)acetamide (DPA) class of ligands targeting the translocator protein (TSPO) is described. This synthetic route offers several improvements over all previously described sequences, including the isolation of intermediates without resort to chromatography. The common precursor to the DPA class of high affinity TSPO ligands, N,N-diethyl-2-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dimethylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)acetamide, was produced in 40% yield over six steps, and was cleanly alkylated to give multigram quantities of several DPA analogues in 90–96% yield after recrystallization.
    Tetrahedron Letters 07/2012; 53(29):3780-3783. DOI:10.1016/j.tetlet.2012.05.044 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Increased expression of translocator protein (TSPO) is a feature of microglial and macrophage activation. Since activated macrophages are key components of tuberculosis-associated inflammation, we evaluated radioiodinated DPA-713, a synthetic ligand of TSPO, for in vivo imaging of host response. Methods: Mice were infected with aerosolized Mycobacterium tuberculosis and evaluated using whole-body [(125)I]iodo-DPA-713 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Ex vivo biodistribution and correlative immunofluorescence studies were also performed. Results: [(125)I]Iodo-DPA-713 SPECT imaging clearly delineated tuberculosis-associated pulmonary inflammation in live animals. Biodistribution studies confirmed radiotracer specificity for inflamed pulmonary tissues. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that TSPO is highly expressed in CD68(+) macrophages and phagocytic cells within tuberculosis lesions and that [(125)I]DPA-713 specifically accumulates within these cells. Coadministration of excess unlabelled DPA-713 abrogated both the SPECT and ex vivo fluorescence signals. Lesion-specific signal-to-noise ratios were significantly higher with [(125)I]iodo-DPA-713 SPECT (4.06 ± 0.52) versus [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) (2.00 ± 0.28) performed in the same mice (P = .004). Conclusions: [(125)I]Iodo-DPA-713 accumulates specifically in tuberculosis-associated inflammatory lesions by selective retention within macrophages and phagocytic cells. [(125)I]Iodo-DPA-713 SPECT provides higher lesion-specific signal-to-noise ratios than [(18)F]FDG PET and may prove to be a more specific biomarker to monitor tuberculosis in situ.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; 208(12). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jit331 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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