Kidney Dysfunction and Cognitive Decline in Women
ABSTRACT ESRD is associated with substantial cognitive deficits but whether earlier kidney dysfunction predicts cognitive decline is less well defined.
More than 1700 women aged ≥70 years in the Nurses' Health Study had plasma creatinine and urinary albumin/creatinine ratios (ACRs) measured in 2000, within 12 months of their initial cognitive testing. These participants had repeated assessments of cognition administered by phone every 2 years, including tests for general cognition, verbal memory, verbal fluency, and working memory for up to 6 years of follow-up. Mixed-effects regression analysis was applied to calculate mean differences in the rate of cognitive decline between women with an estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or an ACR ≥5 mg/g versus referent levels.
The median age was 74 years at initial cognitive testing, 99% of women were Caucasian, median plasma creatinine was 0.8 mg/dl, and 25% had an ACR ≥5 mg/g. The difference in cognitive decline with a baseline ACR ≥5 mg/g versus an ACR <5 mg/g was equivalent to the difference observed with 2-7 years of aging; that is, a higher ACR was associated with 2-7 times faster decline in all four cognitive domains assessed (all P values <0.05) than that attributed to each 1 year of aging alone. No associations were observed between an eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and cognitive decline.
A baseline urinary ACR ≥5 mg/g, a level not traditionally considered clinically significant, is independently associated with faster decline in cognitive function.
SourceAvailable from: Kaarin Anstey[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective Dementia has a multifactorial etiology, but the importance of individual health and lifestyle related risk factors is often uncertain or based on few studies. The goal of this paper is to identify the major modifiable risk factors for dementia as a first step in developing an effective preventive strategy and promoting healthy late life cognitive functioning.MethodsA mixed-method approach combined findings from a systematic literature review and a Delphi consensus study. The literature search was conducted in PubMed and updated an earlier review by the United States National Institutes of Health from 2010. We reviewed the available evidence from observational epidemiological studies. The online Delphi study asked eight international experts to rank and weigh each risk factor for its importance for dementia prevention.ResultsOut of 3127 abstracts, 291 were included in the review. There was good agreement between modifiable risk factors identified in the literature review and risk factors named spontaneously by experts. After triangulation of both methods and re-weighting by experts, strongest support was found for depression, (midlife) hypertension, physical inactivity, diabetes, (midlife) obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, while more research is needed for coronary heart disease, renal dysfunction, diet, and cognitive activity.Conclusions Findings provide good support for several somatic and lifestyle factors and will be used to inform the design of a new multicenter trial into dementia prevention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 11/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1002/gps.4245 · 3.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Urine albumin creatinine ratio, UACR, is positively associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in observational studies. Whether a high UACR is also associated with other causes of death is unclear. We investigated the association between UACR and cause-specific mortality. We included a total of 9,125 individuals from two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, conducted in 1993-94 and 1999-2001, respectively. Urine albumin creatinine ratio was measured from spot urine samples by standard methods. Information on causes of death was obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death until 31 December 2010. There were a total of 920 deaths, and the median follow-up was 11.3 years. Multivariable Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed statistically significant positive associations between UACR status and risk of all-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, mental and behavioural disorders, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system with hazard ratios 1.56, 6.98, 2.34, 2.03, and 1.91, for the fourth UACR compared with the first, respectively. Using UACR as a continuous variable, we also found a statistically significant positive association with risk of death caused by diseases of the digestive system with a hazard ratio of 1.02 per 10 mg/g higher UACR. We found statistically significant positive associations between baseline UACR and death from all-cause mortality, endocrine nutritional and metabolic diseases, and diseases of the circulatory system and possibly mental and behavioural disorders, and diseases of the respiratory and digestive system.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e93212. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093212 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. No previous study examined a disease modifying effect of APOE E4 status on the association between the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and cognition. This study aimed to investigate whether APOE E4 modified the association in Korean adults. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study in adults aged 45 to 74 who were living in Namwon City, Republic of Korea. Cognitive function was measured with the Korean version of modified Mini-Mental State Examination (K-mMMSE) and cognitive impairment was defined as scores falling below the 25th percentile of the K-mMMSE according to age, sex, and educational attainments. Results. A total of 10,190 participants (4006 men and 6184 women) were analyzed in the present study. Of these, 1698 subjects (16.7%) were APOE E4 carriers. The UACR values were negatively associated with the K-mMMSE scores, even after adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, education, and vascular risk factors. APOE E4 modified the association significantly, resulting in a steeper decline of cognitive function with the increase in UACR in E4 carriers (P for interaction = 0.021). Conclusion. Higher UACR values were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction in the general Korean population, with cognition in APOE E4 carriers being more severely affected by increased UACR.Disease markers 10/2014; 2014:724281. DOI:10.1155/2014/724281 · 2.17 Impact Factor