Lung cancer in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: role of smoking, immunodeficiency and pulmonary infection

International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 01/2012; 106(3):447-52. DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2011.558
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immunodeficiency and AIDS-related pulmonary infections have been suggested as independent causes of lung cancer among HIV-infected persons, in addition to smoking.
A total of 68 lung cancers were identified in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) or through linkage with Swiss Cancer Registries (1985-2010), and were individually matched to 337 controls by centre, gender, HIV-transmission category, age and calendar period. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression.
Overall, 96.2% of lung cancers and 72.9% of controls were ever smokers, confirming the high prevalence of smoking and its strong association with lung cancer (OR for current vs never=14.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 3.36-62.1). No significant associations were observed between CD4+ cell count and lung cancer, neither when measured within 1 year (OR for <200 vs ≥500=1.21, 95% CI: 0.49-2.96) nor further back in time, before lung cancer diagnosis. Combined antiretroviral therapy was not significantly associated with lung cancer (OR for ever vs never=0.67, 95% CI: 0.29-1.52), and nor was a history of AIDS with (OR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.19-1.28) or without (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.24-1.18) pulmonary involvement.
Lung cancer in the SHCS does not seem to be clearly associated with immunodeficiency or AIDS-related pulmonary disease, but seems to be attributable to heavy smoking.


Available from: Matthias Cavassini, Jun 12, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The burden of cancer is likely to increase among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population as it ages due to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of cancer in HIV-infected patients. This study was a matched nested case-control study. It was performed using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. The control group included non-HIV-infected patients matched by sex, age, and year of enrollment. Logistic regression analyses were performed and simultaneously adjusted for potential confounders (income, urbanization, and Charslon index of comorbidity to evaluate HIV infection as an independent risk of cancer. We calculated the overall and sex-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) to investigate the pattern of cancer risk and overall cancer risk in the patients with HIV infection. Of the 1,115 HIV-infected patients, 104 (9.33%) developed cancer during the 11-year follow-up period. The risk of cancer for patients with HIV infection was significant (adjusted odds ratio = 3.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.92-5.19) after adjustment for potential confounders. There was a significantly increased risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR = 25.73, 95% CI = 6.83-90.85), cervical cancer (SIR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.0-16.06), lymphoma (SIR = 20.26, 95% CI = 5.86-70.10), and respiratory and intrathoracic cancer (SIR = 20.09, 95% CI = 2.34-172.09) compared with the control group. In addition, HIV-infected patients were at significant risk for renal, oral, breast, liver, skin, and colorectal cancer. Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk for several specific cancers. Our results support the implementation of an active and accelerated cancer screening schedule for patients with HIV infection to increase their life span.
    BMC Cancer 12/2015; 15(1):1099. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1099-y · 3.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In high-income settings, the spectrum of morbidity and mortality experienced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has switched from predominantly AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related conditions. In the context of universal access to care, we evaluated whether that shift would apply in Brazil, a middle-income country with universal access to treatment, as compared to France. Methods Two hospital-based cohorts of HIV-infected individuals were used for this analysis: the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort in South Western France and the Evandro Chagas Research Institute (IPEC) Cohort of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Severe morbid events (AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) were defined as all clinical diagnoses associated with a hospitalization of ≥48 hours. Trends in the incidence rate of events and their determinants were estimated while adjusting for within-subject correlation using generalized estimating equations models with an auto-regressive correlation structure and robust standard errors. Result Between January 2000 and December 2008, 7812 adult patients were followed for a total of 41,668 person-years (PY) of follow-up. Throughout the study period, 90% of the patients were treated with cART. The annual incidence rate of AIDS and non-AIDS events, and of deaths significantly decreased over the years, from 6.2, 21.1, and 1.9 AIDS, non-AIDS events, and deaths per 100 PY in 2000 to 4.3, 14.9, and 1.5/100 PY in 2008. The annual incidence rates of non-AIDS events surpassed that of AIDS-events during the entire study period. High CD4 cell counts were associated with a lower incidence rate of AIDS and non-AIDS events as well as with lower rates of specific non-AIDS events, such as bacterial, hepatic, viral, neurological, and cardiovascular conditions. Adjusted analysis showed that severe morbidity was associated with lower CD4 counts and higher plasma HIV RNAs but not with setting (IPEC versus Aquitaine). Conclusions As information on severe morbidities for HIV-infected patients remain scarce, data on hospitalizations are valuable to identify priorities for case management and to improve the quality of life of patients with a chronic disease requiring life-long treatment. Immune restoration is highly effective in reducing AIDS and non-AIDS severe morbid events irrespective of the setting.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2014; 14(1):278. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-278 · 2.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia is a disease causing serious inflammation and infection of the lungs and accounts for >50,000 mortalities annually. The elderly are at an increased risk of developing pneumonia. Pneumonia is more serious in the elderly than in any other age group due to the increased inflammation and risk of community‑acquired pneumonia associated with aging. Interleukin‑1 receptor antagonist (IL‑1RA) is an anti‑inflammatory protein that counteracts the destructive effects of inflammatory proteins. Therefore, the possible association between pneumonia in elderly individuals and reduced levels of IL‑1RA was investigated in the present study. The number of lymphocytes was counted in all subjects and the relative protein expression levels of IL‑1RA were determined using western blot analysis. In addition, the immunological activities of IL‑1RA were measured using ELISA. The results demonstrated that the numbers of lymphocytes in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were significantly higher in elderly patients than those in young patients. Furthermore, the serum and BALF levels of IL‑1RA in elderly patients were significantly lower than those in young patients (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Therefore, reduced levels of IL‑1RA in BALF may act as a marker for pneumonia in the elderly and may be a potential adjuvant for the diagnosis of pneumonia in elderly individuals. The results also showed that smoking was associated with significant reductions in the levels of IL‑1RA in the BALF of elderly patients. The association between smokers and non‑smokers found in this study provides support for the hypothesis that smoking may contribute to the pathogenesis of pneumonia by further reducing IL‑IRA levels in certain elderly patients.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 05/2014; 10(2). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2014.2284 · 1.48 Impact Factor