Executive Summary of the Workshop "Nutritional Challenges in the High Risk Infant"

Pregnancy and Perinatology Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 03/2012; 160(3):511-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.12.024
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Available from: Michael P Sherman, Feb 24, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and refining the critical questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into human milk composition, mammary development and lactation. We first outline the unanswered questions regarding the composition of human milk (Section I) and the mechanisms by which milk components affect neonatal development, growth and health and recommend models for future research. Emerging questions about how milk components affect cognitive development and behavioral phenotype of the offspring are presented in Section II. In Section III we outline the important unanswered questions about regulation of mammary gland development, the heritability of defects, the effects of maternal nutrition, disease, metabolic status, and therapeutic drugs upon the subsequent lactation. Questions surrounding breastfeeding practice are also highlighted. In Section IV we describe the specific nutritional challenges faced by three different populations, namely preterm infants, infants born to obese mothers who may or may not have gestational diabetes, and infants born to undernourished mothers. The recognition that multidisciplinary training is critical to advancing the field led us to formulate specific training recommendations in Section V. Our recommendations for research emphasis are summarized in Section VI. In sum, we present a roadmap for multidisciplinary research into all aspects of human lactation, milk and its role in infant nutrition for the next decade and beyond.
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 07/2012; 17(2):167-88. DOI:10.1007/s10911-012-9261-5 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare bacterial growth in pure colostrum versus colostrum with human milk fortifier (HMF) containing iron. The growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 78 samples of pure colostrum or colostrum with added iron-containing HMF was compared. For qualitative analysis, filter paper discs were immersed in samples from each group and incubated for 48hours with 10(1) colony forming units (CFUs)/mL of each strain. For quantitative assessment, 1mL of each strain containing 10(7) CFUs/mL was homogenized with 1mL of either colostrum or colostrum with human milk fortifier, seeded into a Petri dish, and incubated at 37°C. Twenty-four hours later, the number of CFUs was counted. The qualitative analysis showed no difference in bacterial growth. In the quantitative evaluation, E. coli growth in the control group was 29.4±9.7×10(6)CFU/mL, while in the HMF group it was 31.2±10.8×10(6)CFU/mL. The difference between the average growth was 1.9±4.9×10(6)CFU/mL (p=0.001). There were no differences in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa growth. Addition of iron at this concentration reduces breast milk bacteriostatic action against E. coli.
    Jornal de pediatria 06/2013; 89(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jped.2012.12.003 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nutrition of preterm infants should result in growth similar to that of normally growing fetuses of the same gestational age. Unfortunately, most preterm infants are not fed enough to achieve this objective; as a result they are growth restricted by term gestation. Recent studies have demonstrated that early and enhanced "aggressive" nutrition of preterm infants can reduce postnatal growth failure and improve longer-term outcomes, particularly for the brain and its cognitive functions. When preterm infants are fed more aggressively (earlier onset of intravenous and enteral feeding, earlier achievement of full enteral feeding) cumulative energy and protein deficits are reduced and they consistently regain birth weight sooner, the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis is unchanged or reduced, and they achieve discharge criteria and go home sooner, with overall shorter hospital stays, and have improved anthropometrics by term gestation. More research is needed, however, to determine optimum feeding of preterm infants, particularly during periods of illness and physiological instability.
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