Development and validation of a prognostic index for 2-year mortality in Chinese older residents living in nursing homes.
ABSTRACT There is no mortality prediction index for Chinese nursing home older residents. The objective of this study was to derive and validate a 2-year mortality prognostic index for them.
We carried out a prospective cohort study on 1120 older residents from 12 nursing homes of Hong Kong. We obtained potential predictors of mortality and carried out updated functional assessment. Each risk factor associated independently with 2-year mortality in a derivation cohort was assigned a score based on the odds ratio, and risk scores were calculated for each participant by adding the points of risk factors present. Similar analysis was carried out on the validation cohort.
Independent predictors of mortality included: aged 86-90 years (3 points); aged ≥ 91 years (4 points); Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 4 (6 points); Barthel Index 5-60 (5 points); Barthel Index 0 (10 points); number of hospitalizations in the preceding year (Adbefore) 1 (4 points); Adbefore 2 (5 points) and Adbefore ≥ 3 (6 points). In the derivation cohort, 2-year mortality was 10.8% in the low-risk group (≤ 4 points) and 59.9% in the high-risk group (≥ 14 points). In the validation cohort, 2-year mortality was 11.8% in the low-risk group and 60.4% in the high-risk group. The receiver-operator characteristic curve area was 0.761 for the derivation cohort and 0.742 for the validation cohort.
Our prognostic index had satisfactory discrimination and calibration in an independent sample of Chinese nursing home older residents. It can be used to identify older residents with a high risk for poor outcomes, who need a different level of care.
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ABSTRACT: For many elderly patients, an acute medical illness requiring hospitalization is followed by a progressive decline, resulting in high rates of mortality in this population during the year following discharge. However, few prognostic indices have focused on predicting posthospital mortality in older adults. To develop and validate a prognostic index for 1 year mortality of older adults after hospital discharge using information readily available at discharge. Data analyses derived from 2 prospective studies with 1-year of follow-up, conducted in 1993 through 1997. We developed the prognostic index in 1495 patients aged at least 70 years who were discharged from a general medical service at a tertiary care hospital (mean age, 81 years; 67% female) and validated it in 1427 patients discharged from a separate community teaching hospital (mean age, 79 years; 61% female). Prediction of 1-year mortality using risk factors such as demographic characteristics, activities of daily living (ADL) dependency, comorbid conditions, length of hospital stay, and laboratory measurements. In the derivation cohort, 6 independent risk factors for mortality were identified and weighted using logistic regression: male sex (1 point); number of dependent ADLs at discharge (1-4 ADLs, 2 points; all 5 ADLs, 5 points); congestive heart failure (2 points); cancer (solitary, 3 points; metastatic, 8 points); creatinine level higher than 3.0 mg/dL (265 micromol/L) (2 points); and low albumin level (3.0-3.4 g/dL, 1 point; <3.0 g/dL, 2 points). Several variables associated with 1-year mortality in bivariable analyses, such as age and dementia, were not independently associated with mortality after adjustment for functional status. We calculated risk scores for patients by adding the points of each independent risk factor present. In the derivation cohort, 1-year mortality was 13% in the lowest-risk group (0-1 point), 20% in the group with 2 or 3 points, 37% in the group with 4 to 6 points, and 68% in the highest-risk group (>6 points). In the validation cohort, 1-year mortality was 4% in the lowest-risk group, 19% in the group with 2 or 3 points, 34% in the group with 4 to 6 points, and 64% in the highest-risk group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the point system was 0.75 in the derivation cohort and 0.79 in the validation cohort. Our prognostic index, which used 6 risk factors known at discharge and a simple additive point system to stratify medical patients 70 years or older according to 1-year mortality after hospitalization, had good discrimination and calibration and generalized well in an independent sample of patients at a different site. These characteristics suggest that our index may be useful for clinical care and risk adjustment.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2001; 285(23):2987-94. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinicians have observed various patterns of functional decline at the end of life, but few empirical data have tested these patterns in large populations. To determine if functional decline differs among 4 types of illness trajectories: sudden death, cancer death, death from organ failure, and frailty. Cohort analysis of data from 4 US regions in the prospective, longitudinal Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) study. Of the 14 456 participants aged 65 years or older who provided interviews at baseline (1981-1987), 4871 died during the first 6 years of follow-up; 4190 (86%) of these provided interviews within 1 year before dying. These decedents were evenly distributed in 12 cohorts based on the number of months between the final interview and death. Self- or proxy-reported physical function (performance of 7 activities of daily living [ADLs]) within 1 year prior to death; predicted ADL dependency prior to death. Mean function declined across the 12 cohorts, simulating individual decline in the final year of life. Sudden death decedents were highly functional even in the last month before death (mean [95% confidence interval [CI]] numbers of ADL dependencies: 0.69 [0.19-1.19] at 12 months before death vs 1.22 [0.59-1.85] at the final month of life, P =.20); cancer decedents were highly functional early in their final year but markedly more disabled 3 months prior to death (0.77 [0.30-1.24] vs 4.09 [3.37-4.81], P<.001); organ failure decedents experienced a fluctuating pattern of decline, with substantially poorer function during the last 3 months before death (2.10 [1.49-2.70] vs 3.66 [2.94-4.38], P<.001); and frail decedents were relatively more disabled in the final year and especially dependent during the last month (2.92 [2.24-3.60] vs 5.84 [5.33-6.35], P<.001). After controlling for age, sex, race, education, marital status, interval between final interview and death, and other demographic differences, frail decedents were more than 8 times more likely than sudden death decedents to be ADL dependent (OR, 8.32 [95% CI, 6.46-10.73); cancer decedents, one and a half times more likely (OR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.25-1.96]); and organ failure decedents, 3 times more likely (OR, 3.00 [95% CI, 2.39-3.77]). Trajectories of functional decline at the end of life are quite variable. Differentiating among expected trajectories and related needs would help shape tailored strategies and better programs of care prior to death.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2003; 289(18):2387-92. · 29.98 Impact Factor
- Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología 11/2009; 45(2):111-2.