Article

Detection of murine leukemia virus in the Epstein-Barr virus-positive human B-cell line JY, using a computational RNA-Seq-based exogenous agent detection pipeline, PARSES.

Tulane University Health Sciences Center and Tulane Cancer Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 03/2012; 86(6):2970-7. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.06717-11
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Many cell lines commonly used for biological studies have been found to harbor exogenous agents such as the human tumor viruses Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus. Nevertheless, broad-based, unbiased approaches to globally assess the presence of ectopic organisms within cell model systems have not previously been available. We reasoned that high-throughput sequencing should provide unparalleled insights into the microbiomes of tissue culture cell systems. Here we have used our RNA-seq analysis pipeline, PARSES (Pipeline for Analysis of RNA-Seq Exogenous Sequences), to investigate the presence of ectopic organisms within two EBV-positive B-cell lines commonly used by EBV researchers. Sequencing data sets from both the Akata and JY B-cell lines were found to contain reads for EBV, and the JY data set was found to also contain reads from the murine leukemia virus (MuLV). Further investigation revealed that MuLV transcription in JY cells is highly active. We also identified a number of MuLV alternative splicing events, and we uncovered evidence of APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G)-dependent DNA editing. Finally, reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed the presence of MuLV in three other human B-cell lines (DG75, Ramos, and P3HR1 Cl.13) commonly used by investigators in the Epstein-Barr virus field. We believe that a thorough examination of tissue culture microbiomes using RNA-seq/PARSES-like approaches is critical for the appropriate utilization of these systems in biological studies.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Joseph Coco, Jul 05, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
226 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described condition characterized by systemic illness as a result of systemic, lytic KSHV infection. We used Illumina sequencing to establish the DNA vironome of blood from such a patient. It identified concurrent high-level viremia of human herpesvirus (HHV) 8 and 6a. The HHV8 plasma viral load was 5,300,000 copies/ml, which is the highest reported to date; this despite less than five skin lesions and no HHV8 associated lymphoma. This is the first report of systemic HHV6a/KSHV co-infection in a patient. It is the first whole genome KSHV sequence to be determined directly from patient plasma rather than cultured or biopsied tumor material. This case supports KICS as a new clinical entity associated with KSHV.
    Virology 08/2012; 433(1):220-5. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2012.08.014 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies have investigated RNA-DNA differences (RDD), presumably due to RNA editing, with conflicting results. We report a rigorous analysis of RDD in exonic regions in mice, taking into account critical biases in RNA-Seq analysis. Using deep-sequenced F1 reciprocal inbred mice, we mapped 40 million RNA-Seq reads per liver sample and 180 million reads per adipose sample. We found 7,300 apparent hepatic RDDs using a multiple-site mapping procedure, compared with 293 RDD found using a unique-site mapping procedure. After filtering for repeat sequence, splice junction proximity, undirectional strand and extremity read bias, 63 RDD remained. In adipose tissue unique-site mapping identified 1,667 RDD, and after applying the same four filters, 188 RDDs remained. In both tissues, the filtering procedure increased the proportion of canonical (A-to-I and C-to-U) editing events. The genomic DNA of 12 RDD sites among the potential 63 hepatic RDD was tested by Sanger sequencing, three of which proved to be due to an unreferenced SNP. We validated seven liver RDD with Sequenom technology, including two non-canonical, Gm5424 C-to-I(G) and Pisd I(G)-to-A RDD. Differences in diet, sex, or genetic background had very modest effects on RDD occurrence. Only a small number of apparent RDD sites overlapped between liver and adipose, indicating a high degree of tissue specificity. Our findings underscore the importance of properly filtering for bias in RNA-Seq investigations, including the necessity of confirming the DNA sequence to eliminate unreferenced SNPs. Based on our results, we conclude that RNA editing is likely limited to hundreds of events in exonic RNA in liver and adipose.
    Genetics 02/2013; DOI:10.1534/genetics.112.149054 · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with roughly 10% of gastric carcinomas worldwide (EBVaGC). Although previous investigations provide a strong link between EBV and gastric carcinomas, these studies were performed using selected EBV gene probes. Using a cohort of gastric carcinoma RNA-seq data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we performed a quantitative and global assessment of EBV gene expression in gastric carcinomas and assessed EBV associated cellular pathway alterations. EBV transcripts were detected in 17% of samples but these samples varied significantly in EBV coverage depth. In four samples with the highest EBV coverage (hiEBVaGC - high EBV associated gastric carcinoma), transcripts from the BamHI A region comprised the majority of EBV reads. Expression of LMP2, and to a lesser extent, LMP1 were also observed as was evidence of abortive lytic replication. Analysis of cellular gene expression indicated significant immune cell infiltration and a predominant IFNG response in samples expressing high levels of EBV transcripts relative to samples expressing low or no EBV transcripts. Despite the apparent immune cell infiltration, high levels of the cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cell inhibitor, IDO1, was observed in the hiEBVaGCs samples suggesting an active tolerance inducing pathway in this subgroup. These results were confirmed in a separate cohort of 21 Vietnamese gastric carcinoma samples using qRT-PCR and on tissue samples using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Lastly, a panel of tumor suppressors and candidate oncogenes were expressed at lower levels in hiEBVaGC versus EBV-low and EBV-negative gastric cancers suggesting the direct regulation of tumor pathways by EBV.
    PLoS Pathogens 05/2013; 9(5):e1003341. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003341 · 8.06 Impact Factor