Increased cancer risks in myotonic dystrophy.
ABSTRACT To estimate cancer risks for patients with myotonic dystrophy, given that increased risks for neoplasms in association with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2 have been suggested in several studies but the risks of cancers have not been quantified.
A cohort of 307 patients with myotonic dystrophy identified from medical records of Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, from January 1, l993, through May 28, 2010, was retrospectively analyzed. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of specific cancers for patients with myotonic dystrophy compared with age- and sex-specific cancer incidences of the general population. Age-dependent cumulative risks were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
A total of 53 cancers were observed at a median age at diagnosis of 55 years. Patients with myotonic dystrophy had an increased risk of thyroid cancer (SIR, 5.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-12.93; P=.001) and choroidal melanoma (SIR, 27.54; 95% CI, 3.34-99.49; P<.001). They may also have an increased risk of testicular cancer (SIR, 5.09; 95% CI, 0.62-18.38; P=.06) and prostate cancer (SIR, 2.21; 95% CI, 0.95-4.35; P=.05). The estimated cumulative risks at age 50 years were 1.72% (95% CI, 0.64%-4.55%) for thyroid cancer and 1.00% (95% CI, 0.25%-3.92%) for choroidal melanoma. There was no statistical evidence of an increased risk of brain, breast, colorectal, lung, renal, bladder, endometrial, or ovarian cancer; lymphoma; leukemia; or multiple myeloma.
Patients with myotonic dystrophy may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and choroidal melanoma and, possibly, testicular and prostate cancers.
Article: Myotonic Dystrophy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy (dystrophia myotonica, DM) is one of the most common lethal monogenic disorders in populations of European descent. DM type 1 was first described over a century ago. More recently, a second form of the disease, DM type 2 was recognized, which results from repeat expansion in a different gene. Both disorders have autosomal dominant inheritance and multisystem features, including myotonic myopathy, cataract, and cardiac conduction disease. This article reviews the clinical presentation and pathophysiology of DM and discusses current management and future potential for developing targeted therapies.Neurologic Clinics 08/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1) is reported to be associated with internal malignancies. The association of myotonic dystrophy with cutaneous tumors is not fully understood. We sought to explore the total nevi count and the presence of atypical nevi, cutaneous melanoma, and other skin neoplasms in a representative cohort of patients with MD1 and to compare the findings with age- and sex-matched control subjects. In all, 90 patients with MD1 and 103 age- and sex-matched control subjects were assessed for cutaneous neoplasms by clinical skin and epiluminescence examination (dermoscopy). Where indicated, subsequent excisions were performed. In patients with MD1, leukocyte n(CTG) expansion was measured. Patients with MD1 showed significantly higher numbers of nevi, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas despite a significantly greater proportion of the control subjects reporting sunburns. In addition, we found a significantly greater number of pilomatrixoma in patients with MD1. Our study is limited by the fact that there is no agreed-upon standardized technique to assess for prior sun exposure. Further research in the association of cutaneous neoplasms and MD1 including vitamin D and molecular biological techniques are also recommended. MD1 itself may predispose to development of skin tumors. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 11/2014; · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and purposeMyotonic dystrophies (DM) are autosomal dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorders caused by unstable nucleotide repeat expansions. DM and cancer have been associated, but the pathogenesis behind the association remains unclear. It could relate to derived effects of the DM genotype in which case non-DM relatives of DM patients would not be expected to be at increased risk of cancer. To elucidate this, a population-based cohort study investigating risk of cancer in relatives of DM patients was conducted.MethodsDM was identified using the National Danish Patient Registry and results of genetic testing. Information on cancer was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. A population-based cohort of 5 757 565 individuals with at least one relative was established using the Danish Family Relations Database based on kinship links in the Danish Civil Registration System. Familial aggregation of cancer was evaluated by (incidence) rate ratios (RRs) comparing the rate of cancer amongst relatives of patients with DM from 1977 to 2010 (exposed) with the rate of cancer amongst persons with a relative of the same type but without DM (non-exposed).ResultsIn first-degree relatives of individuals with DM the adjusted RR of cancer was 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.71–1.12) overall, and in stratified analyses 0.68 (0.37–1.12) before age 50 and 0.96 (0.74–1.23) at age 50 or older.Conclusions The present study does not support an increased risk of cancer in non-DM relatives of DM patients suggesting that cancer and DM are associated through derived effects of the DM genotype.European Journal of Neurology 05/2014; · 3.85 Impact Factor