Increased cancer risks in myotonic dystrophy.
ABSTRACT To estimate cancer risks for patients with myotonic dystrophy, given that increased risks for neoplasms in association with myotonic dystrophy type 1 and type 2 have been suggested in several studies but the risks of cancers have not been quantified.
A cohort of 307 patients with myotonic dystrophy identified from medical records of Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, from January 1, l993, through May 28, 2010, was retrospectively analyzed. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of specific cancers for patients with myotonic dystrophy compared with age- and sex-specific cancer incidences of the general population. Age-dependent cumulative risks were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
A total of 53 cancers were observed at a median age at diagnosis of 55 years. Patients with myotonic dystrophy had an increased risk of thyroid cancer (SIR, 5.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-12.93; P=.001) and choroidal melanoma (SIR, 27.54; 95% CI, 3.34-99.49; P<.001). They may also have an increased risk of testicular cancer (SIR, 5.09; 95% CI, 0.62-18.38; P=.06) and prostate cancer (SIR, 2.21; 95% CI, 0.95-4.35; P=.05). The estimated cumulative risks at age 50 years were 1.72% (95% CI, 0.64%-4.55%) for thyroid cancer and 1.00% (95% CI, 0.25%-3.92%) for choroidal melanoma. There was no statistical evidence of an increased risk of brain, breast, colorectal, lung, renal, bladder, endometrial, or ovarian cancer; lymphoma; leukemia; or multiple myeloma.
Patients with myotonic dystrophy may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer and choroidal melanoma and, possibly, testicular and prostate cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Muscular dystrophy is a condition potentially predisposing for cancer; however, currently, only Myotonic dystrophy patients are known to have a higher risk of cancer. Here, we have searched for a link between facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) and cancer by comparing published transcriptome signatures of FSHD and various malignant tumours and have found a significant enrichment of cancer-related genes among the genes differentially expressed in FSHD. The analysis has shown that gene expression profiles of FSHD myoblasts and myotubes resemble that of Ewing's sarcoma more than that of other cancer types tested. This is the first study demonstrating a similarity between FSHD and cancer cell expression profiles, a finding that might indicate the existence of a common step in the pathogenesis of these two diseases.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 12/2013; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and purposeMyotonic dystrophies (DM) are autosomal dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorders caused by unstable nucleotide repeat expansions. DM and cancer have been associated, but the pathogenesis behind the association remains unclear. It could relate to derived effects of the DM genotype in which case non-DM relatives of DM patients would not be expected to be at increased risk of cancer. To elucidate this, a population-based cohort study investigating risk of cancer in relatives of DM patients was conducted.MethodsDM was identified using the National Danish Patient Registry and results of genetic testing. Information on cancer was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry. A population-based cohort of 5 757 565 individuals with at least one relative was established using the Danish Family Relations Database based on kinship links in the Danish Civil Registration System. Familial aggregation of cancer was evaluated by (incidence) rate ratios (RRs) comparing the rate of cancer amongst relatives of patients with DM from 1977 to 2010 (exposed) with the rate of cancer amongst persons with a relative of the same type but without DM (non-exposed).ResultsIn first-degree relatives of individuals with DM the adjusted RR of cancer was 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.71–1.12) overall, and in stratified analyses 0.68 (0.37–1.12) before age 50 and 0.96 (0.74–1.23) at age 50 or older.Conclusions The present study does not support an increased risk of cancer in non-DM relatives of DM patients suggesting that cancer and DM are associated through derived effects of the DM genotype.European Journal of Neurology 05/2014; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myotonic dystrophy is the commonest adult muscular dystrophy. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) are often discussed jointly, and although they share many clinical and molecular features, differences do exist. Historically, more is known about DM1 than about DM2. The literature in the field of myotonic dystrophy is broad, with advances in our understanding of DM2. This article reviews recent developments in DM2 with respect to diagnosis, systemic features, and molecular mechanisms of the disease.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 02/2014; 14(2):429. · 3.78 Impact Factor